Skip to main content

Full text of "Dedications And Patron Saints Of English Churches Ecclesiastical Symbolism Saints And Their Emblems"

See other formats




_ English churches 

Aee. No. 

-vrvr- ;-" 

'" * ') 

-' * -; J */ 

Keep Your Card in This Pocket 

Books will be issued only on presentation of proper 
library cards. 

Unless labeled otherwise, books may be retained 
for two weeks. Borrowers finding books marked, de- 
faced or mutilated are expected to report same at 
library desk; otherwise the last borrower will be held 
responsible for all imperfections discovered. 

The card holder is responsible for all books drawn 
on this card. 

Penalty for over-due books 2c a day plus cost of 

Lost cards and change of residence must be re- 
ported promptly. 

Public Library 

Kansas City, Mo. 


S. Anne Teaches the Virgin to Read, 

** n ** ** "1 

Dedication^* ^PaSroii T Saints 


of English Churches 




F.G.S., Hon. A.R.I.B.A. 

Author of " Gothic Architecture in England," " Cathedrals of England and Wales," 

" Screens and Galleries in English Churches," " Fonts and Font Covers," " Stalls 

and Tabernacle Work," "Misericords," "Westminster Abbey," "Introduction to 

English Church Architecture " 



London, New York, Toronto, Melbourne, and Bombay 


S. John Baptist. 
All Saints' North Street, York. 


THIS book should be pleasant to read, for it has been pleasant 
to write. It grew out of a perusal of Miss Arnold-Forster s 
Studies in Church Dedications (3 vols., SkefHngton, 1899). Of 
this the third volume is composed of statistics, and gives the 
first and only complete list of saints commemorated in the 
dedications of English churches. These include modern as well 
as mediaeval dedications. It seemed worth while to strip off 
all dedications of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, 
leaving only those of more ancient date. The next step was to 
arrange these earlier dedications in order of frequency of 
occurrence, as a key to the respective popularity or unpopularity 
of the various saints. The results, both as to popularity and 
unpopularity, were so surprising that it was hardly possible not 
to pursue the inquiry further, and endeavour to ascertain how 
the old churchmen came to have such very different ideas from 
our own as to the merits or demerits of the saints. The inquiry 
turned out not to be easy, as may be judged from the long list of 
books in the bibliography (see below) which it was necessary 
to read and digest. Then some sort of order or system of arrange- 
ment had to be devised. It would not have been very profitable 
to discuss haphazard, just as they happened to occur in order 
of frequency, saints of such diverse characteristics as S. Andrew, 
S. Nicholas, S/ Margaret, S. Helena, S. Thomas of Canterbury, 
and the rest ; it would be to compare chalk with cheese. It was 
necessary to divide them up into various categories. Of these 
evidently the first category was of those saints whose biography, 
or part of it, appears in the New Testament. Even here .the 
results of the order of merit, if it may be so termed, of the 
Biblical saints required considerable inquiry and discussion. 
How did it come about, for instance, that SS. Andrew and 
Matthew should have such overwhelming popularity as against 
other apostles and evangelists ? It is only by delving down to 
the fifth century legend of the happenings at Wrondon, the City 
of Dogs (page 154), that the key to the mystery was at length 


discovered. After discussion of the anomalies of the popularity 
of Biblical saints, there still remained the far larger crowd of 
non-Biblical saints. Of these by far the most numerous are 
Celtic saints of Cornwall and Wales, of whom little is said 
in this volume, because of most of them little is known, and of 
several nothing at all (see pages 10-12, 25-27, 192, 193). These 
being expunged from the list, there still remained a very large 
number of non-Biblical saints, whose respective merits and 
demerits it was desirable to examine. These have been divided 
into classes. Of these the first is composed of saints of royal 
blood, chiefly of Anglo-Saxon dynasties, but headed by the 
great Roman empress, Helena (pages 72-83). Then follows a 
consideration of saints distinguished by their theological scholar- 
ship as compared with those who won greater acceptance by 
austerity and asceticism of life (pages 84-91). There follows a 
list of the chief saints, not excluding the charming legends of 
S. Bridget of Kildare, to whom was due the evangelisation of 
Western Europe and Ireland (pages 92-100). These are followed 
by the saints who brought about the conversion of the Anglo- 
Saxon kingdoms ; special attention being directed to the position 
occupied by women in the Anglo-Saxon church (pages 101-108). 
The largest category is that of the "white-robed army of 
Martyrs," which, beginning in the first century and extending 
with breaks up to the execution at Whitehall in 1629, is largely 
a synopsis of the history of Church History in Western Europe 
through seventeen centuries (pages 109-136). A list of other 
good men is given, who though never formally canonised, or if 
canonised, not commemorated in dedications, nevertheless were 
popular saints with common folk (pages 137-145 and 194-200). 
The categories are now complete. Each contains strange 
anomalies. An attempt had to be made to explain the indiffer- 
ence felt by the old churchmen to some saints, their love and 
admiration of others. Some sort of explanation, or rather a 
series of explanations, is offered in the twelfth chapter, e.g., that 
a particular saint was specific against some common danger or 
malady, or that his story lent itself readily to representation in 
pictorial art, or that his relics were widely diffused, or that the 
legend was in praise of virginity, or of loving-kindness to poor 
people, and the sick, and cripples, and lepers, and captives, and 
little children, and the birds and beasts of the forest ; but far 
away above all, that the biography had been written up by 
mediaeval men of letters, in whose hands, then as now, lay the 
gift of immortality (pages 146-182). Finally, it is asked how far 
these diverse biographies are veracious, and an attempt is made 
to set forth canons of credibility of legendary lore (pages 183- 


1 88). So far Hagiology in general had been dealt with, but it 
seemed interesting also to inquire how far local Hagiology 
agreed with or differed from it; test counties, therefore, were 
examined for the purpose, and the results are given in Chapter 
XVI. A comparison also has been made of the popularity of 
saints as shown in church dedications, and as shown in church 
bells and calendars ; the calendars of Bede and Sarum are given 
at length. Also a chapter is added on the consecration services 
of churches in Celtic, Anglo-Saxon, and mediaeval times. 

The second part of the book is devoted to an explanation of 
the symbolism which occurs so abundantly in every branch of 
mediaeval church art (pages 243-291). 

The third part consists of an alphabetical list of emblems to 
facilitate the identification of representations of the saints. 
This is followed by an alphabetical list of saints chiefly those 
commemorated in the dedications of English churches followed 
by the emblems characteristic of each. These two lists should 
be of use to the archaeologist, but still more to a traveller who, 
like the present writer, has been visiting this summer the stained 
glass of Chartres and Le Mans, the pictures galleries of Florence, 
Milan, and Venice, and the churches of Brittany with their 
wealth of images. By the aid of these lists the identification of 
English saints represented in sculpture, pictorial art, stained glass, 
ivories, and the like, may in most cases be readily accomplished. 

For the illustrations of the book the writer is indebted to the 
kindness and co-operation of many friends. For photographs, 
drawings, or blocks, acknowledgments are due to Mr S. Ambler, 
Mr E. W. Andrew, Rev. T. N. Baxter, Mr H. C. Beckett, Dr G. 
G. Buckley, Mr P. B. Burroughs, Miss Kate M. Clarke, Mr F. 
H. Crossley, Mr W. Davidson, Messrs Dawkes and Partridge, 
Mr W. Marriott Dodson, Mr J. F. East, Mr W. Eaton, A.R.LB.A., 
Rev. J. T. Fowler, D.C.L., Mr A. Gardner, F.S.A., Mr S. Gardner, 
Mr Cecil Gethen, Mr Harry Gill, Mr Advent Hunatone, Mr F. 
Jenkins, Miss Mabel Leaf, Rev. Walter Marshall, F.S.A., Mrs E. 
M'Clure, Dr Philip Nelson, Mr C. F. Nunneley, Mr A. Y. Nutt, 
Mr W. T. Oldrieve, F.R.I.B.A., Mr T. Phillips, Mr H. Plowman, 
Miss E. K. Prideaux, Rev. C. O. Raven, Mr E. A. Reeve, Mr. A. 
W. Searley, Mr S. Smith, Mr W. S. Weatherley, F.R.I.B.A., Mr 
D. Weller, Mr G. H. Widdows, A.R.LB.A., Rev. W. E. Wigfall, 
Mr W. Percival-Wiseman, Mr W. P. Young ; reproductions of 
the above are distinguished by the initials of the owner of the 
photograph or block. The following books also have been 
drawn on for illustrations : Calendar of the English Church^ by 
permission of Messrs Parker ; Rood Screens and Rood Lofts, by 
Mr F. Bligh Bond, F.R.I.B.A., and Dom Bede Camm, by 


permission of Messrs Pitman and the joint authors; the new 
series of the Reliquary ; the drawings of the Ranworth Rood 
Screen, by Mr C. J. Winter; Medieval Figure Sculpture in 
England, by Professor E. S. Prior and Mr Arthur Gardner, by 
permission of the Cambridge University Press and the joint 
authors ; and the volumes in the English Church Art Series by 
the.present writer on Westminster Abbey and Rood Screens and 
Galleries in English Churches. 

Valuable information has been kindly supplied from various 
sources ; special acknowledgments are due to the Right Reverend 
G. F. Browne, Dom Bede Camm, Miss Kate M. Clarke, Mr G. 
C. Druce, Rev. J. T. Fowler, D.C.L., Mr C. E. Keyser, Dr 
Montague James, Mrs E. M'Clure, Mr W. J. N. Millard, 
A.R.I.B.A., Mr C. F. Nunneley, Dr Philip Nelson, Miss E. K. 
Prideaux, Mr H. B. Walters, Rev. W. A. Wickham. 

The text has had the advantage of revision by Rev. G. C. 
Niven, Rev. G. W. Saunders, and Mr F. B. Walters, F.S.A. A 
bibliography has been prefixed to the text, and indexes will be 
found at the end of the volume, together with alphabetical lists 
of Saints and their Emblems. The writer will be glad to receive 
corrections and suggestions through his publisher, Mr Humphrey 
Milford, Oxford University Press, Amen Corner, London, E.G. 


BIBLIOGRAPHY ------- xi 




TIONS ------ g 




DEDICATIONS - - - - 28 











THE SAINTS - - - - -183 







OF BEDE AND SARUM - - - 220 







GENERAL INDEX - - - - - 341 



IT should be clearly understood, says Mr Bates, 1 that there is no 
authoritative list of English dedications in existence. Among 
the public Records are two works known as Pope Nicholas' 
Taxatio of 1291 and the Valor Ecclesiasticus of 1536, containing 
the names of all parishes in England and Wales ; these were 
drawn up primarily to ascertain the value of the benefices, and 
only incidentally, as in the case of a town with many churches, 
are the dedications added. The latter work, known as the 
Valor Ecclesiasticus or Liber Regis, was first printed in 1711 
by John Ecton. It was not till 1742, after the death of Ecton, 
that an edition was published, in which the dedications were 
added, as far as he was able to obtain them, largely from hear- 
say and fishing inquiries, by the well known antiquary, Browne 
Willis. In 1786 John Bacon brought out a new edition of the 
Liber Regis, based on the the labours of Ecton and Willis, but 
omitting all mention of their names from the title page. 

The following are the chief authorities on the dedications of 
English churches : 

BACON. Liber Regis, vel Thesaurus Rerum Ecdesiasticarum* 1786. 
ECTON. Thesaurus Rerum Ecclesiasticantm. 2nd edition. 1754. 
LAWTON. Collectio Rerum Ecclesiasticarum de diocesi Eboracensi. 1 840. 

Clergy List. Published annually. 

Diocesan Calendars. Published annually. 

MACKESON. Guide to the London Churches. Published annually. 

For general purposes Miss Arnold-Foster's Studies in Church Dedi- 
cations or England's Patron Saints (London, 1899), will be found all 


Round the dedications of Celtic saints a considerable litera- 
ture has gathered. The following are among the most important 
works : 

REES, Rev. RICE. Essay on the Welsh Saints. London, 1836. 
BORLASE, W. C. Age of the Saints. Truro, 1878. 

1 Rev. E. H. Bates in Somerset Archaeological Proceeding^ li. 105. 



REES, Rev. W. J. Lives of the Cambro- British Saints; translated. 

Published by the Society for the Publication of Ancient Welsh 

NEWELL, E. J. A Popular History of the Ancient British Church. 

1887. Truro Diocesan Kalendar. 

FORBES, BISHOP. Kakndars of the Scottish Saints. 1872. 
BARING-GOULD, S. A Catalogue of Saints connected with Cornwall^ 

with an Epitome of their Lives and List of Churches and Chapels 

Dedicated to them. Royal Institute of Cornwall^ xiii. 439 ; xiv. 25, 

260; xv. 17, 256, 347; xvi. 144, 279, 395; xvii. 155. 
EVANS, J. T. Church Plate of Pembrokeshire, with Notes on the 

Dedications of Pembrokeshire Churches. Lo ndon, 1905. 
KERSLAKE, THOMAS. The Celt and the Teuton in Exeter. Archaeological 
Journal^ xxx. 211. 

Vestiges of the Supremacy of Mercia. Translations of the Bristol 

and Gloucester Archaeological Society ', 1872. 

The Welsh in Dorset. Dorset Field Club, iii. 74. 

BARING-GOULD, S., and JOHN FISHER. The Lives of the British Saints^ 

the Saints of Wales and Cornwall^ and such Irish Saints as have 

Dedications in England. London, 4 vols., 1907-1914. 
STOKES, WHITLEY. Three Middle-Irish Homilies on the Lives of Saints 

Patrick, Brigit) and Cohtmba. Calcutta, 1877. 
STANTON'S Menology of England and Wales contains three appendixes 

as follows : 

(a) An alphabetical list of Welsh saints, to whom churches are 

dedicated, or whose names appear in some ancient 

(b) A list of other Welsh saints, or eminent persons sometimes 

called saints, but to whom no churches are known to have 
been dedicated, and many of whom, it is probable, have 
never in fact been honoured as saints. 

(c) A list of Cornish saints, not only those named in the above 

Menology, but others to whom churches have been 
dedicated, or who have given their names to places, 
but have left no sufficient record of their lives. 


The following deal with the subject of dedications generally: 

BINGHAM, J. Antiquities of the Christian Church. New edition, 10 

vols. Oxford, 1855. 
BRIGHT, CANON W. Chapters of Early English Church History. 

Oxford, 1878. 
BROWNE, CHARLES. Transactions of St PauPs Ecclesiological Society, 

vol. i., v. 267. 

PEACOCK, EDWARD, Archcsological Review, ii, 269. 
HARINGTON, E. C. The Rite of Consecration of Churches. London, 1844. 


The following deal with the dedications of the churches in 
particular counties or districts : 

VENABLES, PRECENTOR. Dedications of the Churches of Lincolnshire 
as Illustrating the History of the County. Arch ceo logical Journal, 
xxxviii. 365. 

Dedications of the Parish Churches of Nottinghamshire. Associated 

Societies' Reports, v. 10 and xvii. i. 

RAINE, CANON. Dedications of the Nottinghamshire Churches, as shown 
by Wills. Associated Societies' Reports ; xvi. ii. 231, 239. 

Dedications of the Yorkshire Churches. Yorkshire Archaeological 

Journal^ vol. ii. 180. 

JACKSON, J. E. Names of Wiltshire Churches. Wilts. Archaological 

Magazine \ xv. 98. 
GREGORY, J. V. Dedication Names of Ancient Churches in Durham and 

Northumberland. Archtzological Journal, xlii. 370. 
BATES, E, H. Dedications of the Churches of Somerset. Somerset 

Arch&ological Society, Ii. 105. 
DUNCAN, LELAND E. Dedications in the Diocese of Rochester. S. Paul's 

Ecclesiological Society, i i i . 241. 

Ecclesiological Notes concerning the Deanery of Shoreham, Kent. 

Archceologia Cantiana, xxiii. 134. 

Parish Churches of West Kent. Testamenta Cantiana. 1907. 

HUSSEY, ARTHUR. Dedications in East Kent. Testamenta Cantiana. 

ATTREE, F. W. T. Some Hampshire Dedications gathered from Pre- 

Reformation Wills. Hampshire Field Club Papers, ii. 33 1 
AUDEN, H. M. Shropshire Dedications to Celtic Saints. Shropshire 

Archaeological and Natural History Society, iii. i. 284. 
CLARK-MAXWELL, W. G. Some Local Dedications in their bearing on 

Local Church History. Shropshire Archaeological and Natural 

History Society, iv. i. 363. 
GIBBON, C. Dedications of the Churches and Chapels in the Rapes of 

Chichester, Arundel, and Bramber. Sussex Archaological Collections, 

xii. 6 r. 
ROWE, J. B. Dedications of the A?icient Parish Churches, Chapels and 

Religious Houses of Devon. Devonshire Association, xiv, 93. 
OLDHAM, D. W. Church Dedications in Devonshire. Devonshire 

Association, xxxv. 746. 


For the LIVES OF THE SAINTS the chief authority is the Acta Sanctorum, 
compiled by the Bollandists. Their object was to print the best 
text ; for the authenticity of the legends they are in nowise re- 
sponsible. Over sixty volumes have appeared, and it is still 

BAILLET J. Vie des Saints. 1739. 


BUTLER, ALBAN. Lives of the Saints. 12 vols. London, 1812, 1813; 

this contains also lists of the relics of the saints s and of the places 

where they are to be found. 

BARING-GOULD, S. Lives of the Saints. 1 6 vols. 2nd edition. 1877. 
NEWMAN'S Lives of the Saints. 6 vols. 1901. This series was 

prepared by various hands at the suggestion of Cardinal Newman, 

and was never completed. 
SMITH and WAGE'S Dictionary of Christian Biography. 3 vols. The 

articles are by eminent scholars, and are of high critical value. 

4 vols. London. 1877-1887. 
Miss ARNOLD-FORSTER in Studies in Church Dedications, vols. i. and ii., 

gives a critical account of the lives of saints who are commemorated 

in dedications. 
JAMESON, Mrs. Sacred and Legendary Art. The legends of the 

saints are mainly considered from the point of view of their repre- 
sentation in mediaeval and modern art : the book consists of three 

I. The History of Our Lord and of Old and New Testament 

Personages. 2 vols. 1864. 

II. Legends of the Madonna. 2nd edition. 1857. 
III. Legends of the Monastic Orders. 2nd edition. 1852. 
JACOBUS DE VORAGINE (Venice, 1480). The Golden Legend. Translated 

by William Caxton. Reprinted by William Morris. 1892. 
Calendar of the English Church. Illustrated. Parker. 1851. 
HARCOURT, C. G. V. Legends of S. Augustine, S. Anthony ', and S. 

Cuthbert, painted on the back of the stalls in Carlisle Cathedral. 

Illustrated. Carlisle, 1868. 
WEAVER, F. W. On the Cult of S. Barbara. Somerset Archaological 

and Natural History Proceedings. 1893. 
HORSTMAN, CARL. Nova Legenda Anglice. As collected by John of 

Tynemouth, John Capgrave, and others, and first printed, with New 

Lives, by Wynkyn de Worde in 1516. 2 vols. Oxford, 1901. 
STANTON, RICHARD. Menology of England and Wales. 1887. 


On the emblems of the saints the chief English authority is Husenbeth ; s 
Emblems, 3rd edition, edited by Dr Jessop. 

On the paintings of saints on the rood screens of Norfolk see G. E. 
Fox in Victoria County History of Norfolk, ii. 529; and ditto, 
Notes on Painted Screens and Roofs in Norfolk (Archaological 
Journal, xlvii. 65) ; and on those of the Devonshire screens see 
Rood Screens and Rood Lofts, London, 1909, by F. Bligh Bond 
and Dom Bede Camm. On screens generally and their paintings 
see bibliography prefixed to Screens and Galleries, by Francis 
Bond, London, 1908. 

KEYSON, C. E., on Panel Paintings of Saints on Devonshire Screens, in 
Archceologia, Ivi. 183. 


WILSON. English Martyrologe. 1608. 

CHALLONER. Britannia Sancta. London, 1745. 

BLAISE. Vie des Saints. 2 vols. Paris, 1825. 

KEYSER, C. E. Notes on some Fifteenth Century Stained Glass in the 

Church of Wiggenhall St Mary Magdalen. Norfolk and Norwich 

Archaologial Society ) xvi. 306-319. 

NELSON, PHILIP. Ancient Painted Glass in England. London, 1913. 
WINTER, C. J. W. Rood Screen at Ranworth, Norfolk. Norwich, 

GUNN, Rev. JOHN. Rood Screen at Barton Turf, Norfolk. Norwich, 

BIRCH and JENNER. Early Drawings of Illuminations in the British 

Museum. London, 1879. 
MICKLETHWAITE, J. T. Statues in Henry the Sevenths Chapel^ 

Westminster. Archaologia, xlvii. 361. 

CAHIER, CH. Characteristiques des Saints. 2 vols. Paris, 1867. 
CALLOT, JAQUES. Images de tous les Saints et Saintes de Fann'ee. 

Paris, 1636. 
TWINING, LOUISA. Symbols and Emblems of Early and Medfaval 

Christian Art. London, 1885. 

MOLANO. De Historia SS. Imaginum et Picturarum. Lovanii, 1771, 
ALT, A. Die Heiligenbilder. 
RADOWITZ. Ikonographie der Heiligen. Berlin, 1834. 


DURANDUS' Rationale. First book, translated with introduction by 

Neale & Webb. 
DIDRON'S Christian Iconography. Completed by Miss Margaret Stokes. 

Bohn's Library, 1886. 
MALE, EMILE. The Religious Art of the Thirteenth Century in France. 

Translated by Dora Nussey. London, 1913. 
PORTER, A. K. Medieval Architecture, ii. 115-145. 
J. ROMILLY ALLEN'S Early Christian Symbolism in Great Britain and 

Ireland before the Thirteenth Century, being the Rhind Lectures for 

1885. Whiting, 1887. 

POOLERS Appropriate Character of Church Architecture. 
HULME, EDWARD. Symbolism in Christian Art. London, 1892. 


MASKELL'S Monumenta Ritualia EcclesicB Anglicana. 2nd edition. 

GELDART, E. Manual of Church Decoration and Symbolism. Oxford, 


BLUNT'S Annotated Prayer Book. 1903. 
NEWMAN'S Lives of the English Saints. First volume. 
Miss ARNOLD-FORSTER prefixes to her first volume on Dedications a 


calendar (movable feasts excepted) showing the days allotted to 
those saints who have churches dedicated to them. 

FORBES, BISHOP. Kalendars of the Scottish Saints. 1872. 

MART^NE, EDMOND, and DURAND, URSIN. Vetenim Scriptorum etMonu- 
mentorum, historicorum, dogmaticorum, moralium amplissima collectio. 
9 vols. Paris, 1724-1733. 

GURANGER, DOM. The Liturgical Year. Translated by Shepherd. 
Dublin and London, 1867.' 

STANTON, RICHARD. Menology of England and Wales. The seventh 
appendix gives a list of 21 martyrologies consulted in the pre- 
paration of the work. 

GASQUET and BISHOP. Edward 71. and the Book of Common Prayer. 
London, 1890. 




Dedication, Meaning of -Intercessory Power of the Saints Dedications to 
the Holy Trinity The Second Person in the Godhead Holy Cross or 
Holy Rood S; Sepulchre The Third Person in the Godhead. 

ALL over Christendom, in the Latin and in the Greek Church, 
every church and chapel is or was connected with the name of 
some saint or of some sacred place or event ; with the name of 
the Blessed Virgin, S. Peter, S. Michael, the Holy Sepulchre, the 
Assumption of the Blessed Virgin, or the like. It must be borne 
in mind, however, that no church or chapel is immediately 
consecrated or dedicated to any saint or event, but solely to 
Almighty God. Churches, says Hooker, 1 were consecrated .to 
none but the Lord only. The general name " church " doth 
sufficiently show this, for it doth signify nothing but the " Lord's 
House." But founders of churches, for distinction's sake, did 
each yphat liked him best, intending that the name of the saint 
to whom the church was dedicated should put the person who 
used or heard the name in mind of some memorable thing or 
person. And S. Augustine saith, " To the saints we appoint no 
churches, because they are not unto us as gods, but as memorials 
as unto dead men, whose spirits with God are still living." So 
also Bingham 2 writes that " the naming of a church by the name 
of a saint or martyr was far from dedicating it to that saint or 
martyr, though it served for a memorial of him among the living, 
and so far was an honour to his memory, though dedicated only 

1 Ecclesiastical Polity^ v. 13. 

2 Origines Ecclesiastica^ vol. ii. p. 529. 


to God and His service." This being so, it is properly not right 
to refer to a church as being dedicated to such and such a saint 
or event ; it is a sort of convenient shorthand way of expressing 
that we mean that it is dedicated to God in memory 0f such and 
such a saint or event. It is in this sense, and with this reserva- 
tion, that the term "dedication" is used throughout this volume. 

A convincing proof of this, which does not seem to have been 
hitherto pointed out, is that many a town hall and hospital is 
known abroad as Hotel Dieu or Maison Dieu (a fine example of 
the latter is still in use at Dover), but neither at home nor abroad 
are any churches dedicated to the First Person of the Trinity. 
Had such a dedication been given, the meaning would have 
been that the church so dedicated was dedicated to God the 
Father in memory of God the Father. 

As regards England, we are now able to get a comprehensive 
view of the whole subject of English dedications. 1 It is one of 
curious interest, throwing strange and often unexpected side- 
lights on the feelings and practices of English churchmen, 
whether in Celtic, Anglo-Saxon, or Post-Conquest days. The 
dedications of the churches of England have much to tell us of 
English Christian belief and feeling from the beginning of Church 
history up to the present day. 

In the first place it may be noted that, as was to be expected, 
a considerable number of churches are dedicated to the Trinity 
in Unity or to the Second or Third Persons of the Godhead. 
And here, at the very outset, we come across something which 
was not to be expected. It is that the above three dedications 
are outnumbered, far and away, by others. Altogether the 
three yield no more than 450 Pre-Reformation examples : a 
small number compared with the 2,335 dedications to the 
Blessed Virgin, 1,255 to All Saints or All Hallows, 1,140 to 
S. Peter, 687 to S. Michael and All Angels, 637 to S. Andrew. 
The reason for this is probably to be found in the ever-growing 
tendency to attach great importance to the Intercessory Power 
of the Saints, to the belief in the efficacy of their mediation, 
which is already to be found in Christian doctrines and practice 
even as early as the fourth century. 

1 Thanks to Miss Frances Arnold-Forster, who in the third volume of 
her Studies in Church Dedications^ has given first the number of dedications 
of churches and chapelries, ancient and modern, connected with each saint 
or sacred event ; secondly, an alphabetical list of all the English parishes 
with the dedications of their several churches ; and thirdly, an alphabetical 
list of the saints, followed by the names of the parishes- in which their 
churches are found. 

A. II. 

Trinity Emblem. 
From brass at Tideswell, Derbyshire; 



Under this heading are found 297 ancient 1 dedications. 
Comparatively few churches were dedicated to the Holy Trinity 
or the Sacred Trinity before the closing years of the twelfth 
century. But S. Thomas of Canterbury had been consecrated 
Archbishop in 1170 on the first Sunday after Whitsuntide ; he 
had celebrated his first mass in Prior Conrad's Trinity chapel, 
which was to be burnt down four years later ; and it was to this 
Trinity chapel that the archbishop constantly resorted for 
private prayer. The Church of Rome had refused to institute a 
separate festival to the Holy Trinity, but Becket ordained that 
all churches in his province should henceforth observe the first 
Sunday after Whitsuntide as Trinity Sunday. 2 After the 
rebuilding of Canterbury choir the relics of the archbishop had 
been transferred in 1220 from the crypt to the chapel at the 
back of the High Altar occupying the same relative position as 
his beloved Trinity chapel. 3 The great English martyr, there- 
fore, whose influence was enormous throughout Christendom, 
was closely connected in the popular mind with the doctrine of 
the Trinity, and the result was naturally a great increase in the 
number of dedications of churches to the Holy Trinity. At a 
second period also this dedication was in special favour ; viz., 
from the time of Henry VIII. to the end of the seventeenth 
century ; this was due mainly to a reaction against the venera- 
tion of non-Biblical saints and of saints in general. It was 
Henry VIII. who introduced the Trinity into the dedications of 
the cathedrals of Ely and Winchester and of Trinity College, 
Cambridge, A third period is the first half of the nineteenth 
century, when the evangelical party in the Church selected this 
dedication for more than 230 churches. 4 

It is of interest that our mercantile marine, our harbours, 
anchorage grounds, lighthouses, lightships, and buoys are all 
under the care of a guild founded in 1515 by Sir Thomas Sport, 
who had been captain of the great galleon Harry Grace a Dieu, 

1 The term " ancient dedication " as used throughout this volume is 
not synonymous with " Pre- Reformation " dedication, as it includes all 
dedications of the sixteenth and seventeenth century. 

2 It was not till nearly 150 years later that the Roman Church universally 
followed the practice of the English Church in observing Trinity Sunday as 
settled by Becket. The Greek Church does not recognise this festival. 

3 The new chapel was called S. Thomas' chapel, but in modern times it 
has recovered its old style of Trinity chapel. 

* Arnold-Forster, i. 27. 


under the title of " the Master, Wardens and Assistants of the 
Guild or Fraternity of the Most Glorious and Undivided Trinity, 
and of S. Clement," the latter being more immediately connected 
with roads and anchorages by reason of the part played in 
his legend by an anchor. Another contemporary use of this 

A. Y. N. 

From a brass to Lady Exeter (1474) in S. George's chapel, Windsor. 

dedication may be cited. When Columbus was on his third 
voyage to America, he saw riding across the sea what appeared 
to be three distinct mountains of islands ; but as the vessel 
drew near, they merged into one another at the base, being a 
single immense mass of basalt. This so struck him that he 
named the island Trinity Island, La Trinidad On his first 


voyage the first land he reached was christened by him Saviour 
Island, "San Salvador." 1 


For the reason given above the direct dedications to Our 
Lord are few. "Christ Church" occurs twenty times. 
Canterbury cathedral has retained this dedication ever since 
it was appointed by Augustine in the seventh century. When 
Henry VIII. set to work to re-dedicate the cathedrals, his 
favourite names were "The Holy Trinity," "Christ Church " 
and "The Blessed Virgin Mary." It was he who introduced 
the name of Christ into the dedications of the cathedrals of 
Worcester, Rochester, Chester, Durham, and Oxford. In 
another form the dedication appears as Jesus chapel at 
Troutbeck, near Windermere, and at Southampton ; and 
formerly as "The Holy Jesus" at Attercliffe, Yorkshire. 
Thirteen dedications are found to " S. Saviour" or " Our 
Saviour" \ the best known is that of Southwark cathedral, 
which, till Henry VIII. suppressed the Augustinian house, was 
dedicated to S. Mary Overie, S. Mary over the river. In his 
presence in the Holy Host (" Hostia"} at the Eucharist Our 
Lord is commemorated once in " S. Mary and Corpus Christi" 
Hatherley Down, Gloucestershire ; and once in " S. Mary and 
the Holv Host" Cheveley, Cambridgeshire. Both Oxford and 
Cambridge have colleges dedicated to " Corpus Christi " as well 
as to "Jesus." 


Connected with these is a series of dedications bearing on 
incidents of the life of Our Lord. Of these the most numerous 
are the twenty-three dedications to the " Holy Rood" and the 
eighty-three to the "Holy Cross" In our Church Calendar the 
I4th of September is marked as "Holy Cross Day" ; in the 
Roman Calendar, more precisely as Exaltatio Cruets, the " Setting 
up of the Cross/' by way of distinction from the 3rd of May, 
which is the day when the Cross was discovered, Inventio Cruds. . 
The latter date commemorates the discovery at Jerusalem by 
the Emperor Constantine of three crosses, the former the 
dedication of a church built over the spot. In later days the 
Holy Cross was carried off by the Persian conqueror, Chosroes, 

1 Charles Browne, Tramactions of 5. Paul's Ecclesiological Society ', i. 269. 


but was ^ at length recovered by Heraclius, who brought it back 
and set it up again on its old site in Jerusalem, On its original 

W. M. D. 

Alabaster panel in S. Peter Mancroft, Norwich. 

discovery a large slice from it was cut off by the Empress 
Helena and sent to Rome, where there was built to receive it 


the famous church of S. Croce in Gerusalemme. In America 
numerous places bear the name of Vera Cruz because their 
churches contain fragments of the True Cross; Santa Cruz owes 
its name to the fact that it was discovered on Holy Cross Day. 
Among noteworthy dedications are those of Holyrood abbey, 1 
Scotland ; S. Cross, Winchester ; Holy Cross abbey at Shrews- 
bury; Holy Cross and S. Lawrence, Waltham, Essex; and 
S. Crux, a parish church in the city of York, now demolished. 


A remarkable group is that of the circular churches dedicated 
to S. Sepulchre or Holy Sepulchre at the Temple, London, 
Cambridge, Northampton, and Little Maplestead, Essex. The 
circular plan of these was an imitation of that of the church of 
the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem with which the Knights 
Templars and the Knights Hospitallers were closely connected. 
The demolished Cluniac priory of Thetford, Norfolk, had this 
dedication. Altogether there are 150 dedications connected 
directly, and 112 connected indirectly with Our Lord. 


Two dedications to S. Esperit survive in Warwickshire, 
Marton, and Wappenbury, and from their form may well have 
come down from Norman days. North of Basingstoke station 
may be seen the ruins of the chapel of the Holy Ghost built 
by Bishop Fox and Lord Sandys ; portions of its famous glass 
have been removed to the parish church. 2 

1 Charles Browne, Ibid^ 272, 

2 Arnold-Forster, i. 18-36. 


Memorial, Proprietary, and Personal 
Dedications S. Edward, K.M. 
Celtic Dedications 

SETTING aside the above dedications 
to the Second and Third Persons in 
the Godhead we come to what are, 
in a vast majority, dedications to the 
saints. Of these three classes may 
be distinguished. The first com- 
prises the dedications of "Memorial 
Churches" \ the second what Bishop 
Stubbs calls "Proprietary Dedica- 
tions " ; the third, which enormously 
outnumbers the others, may be styled 
" Personal Dedications? 

Some of the oldest, if not the 
oldest of all, are dedications of those 
churches which were built over the 
actual tomb of a martyr to com- 
memorate his faithful witness. From 
the fourth century onwards such 
memorial churches were built in every 
land. As soon as the Peacexrf the 
Church, 312 A.D., set the Church at 
liberty, churches were built over the 
tombs of the martyrs at Rome, 
usually above ground, such as the 
basilicas of S. Peter and S. Paul 
extra muros, sometimes down in the 
Catacombs, partially or wholly under- 
ground, such as the basilicas of S. 
Lorenzo, S. Agnese, S. Clement, and 
S. Petronilla. So we in England 
built new churches or re-dedicated 
old churches to be the memorials of 
many a beloved saint, S. Alban, S. 
Etheldreda, S. Guthlac, S. Ethelbert, 



w. s. w. 

S. Edward, K.M. 


S/ Frideswide, S. Cuthbert, S. Chad, S. Edmund, and many 
another. Perhaps the earliest memorial church is one at 
Carthage, which S. Augustine tells us was dedicated to S. 
Cyprian in the place where he suffered martyrdom in the 
year 258. An example nearer home is that of the boy- 
King Edward slain at eventide in 979 at the gate of Corfe 
Castle. He was buried at Wareham ; afterwards his remains 
were transferred to Shaftesbury abbey, where the shrine was so 
famous that the town was long known as Edwardstow. In the 
church of Lady S. Mary, Wareham, a low vaulted chapel of 
curious construction is shown ; it is known as S. Edward's 
Chapel, and is reputed to be a reproduction of the little wooden 
chapel in which the body of S. Edward, King and Martyr, was 
deposited after his murder, 1 

A second class comprises those churches which com- 
memorated not the martyr or saint buried within their walls, 
but the founder of the church. Such a church was not 
dedicated to the founder by himself, but by his admirers or 
successors. In many cases we are certain that this was so; .;, 
S. Cuthburga founded Wimborne minster and dedicated it to 
the Blessed Virgin ; later on the dedication was changed to 
" S. Cuthburga." These Proprietary Dedications are especially 
characteristic of the Celtic Church. 2 Indeed, strictly speaking, 
there were no dedications at all in the Celtic Church. There 
was a ceremony of consecration it was exceedingly elaborate 
e.g.) at Lastingham, where it is described at length by Bede, 
but the church was not dedicated. All churches founded in 
any one of S. David's missionary tours were called "David's 
churches," those founded by S. Teilo were called "Teilo's 
churches," and so on ; but they were not dedicated either to 
S.- David or S. Teilo. Such of these proprietary dedications as 
survive are naturally of very ancient date. Historically too they 

1 On the west front of Wells cathedral he is represented holding in 
his. hand the stirrup cup (broken) given him at the gate of Corfe Castle 
by his stepmother, on whom he tramples. In Henry the Seventh's 
chapel, Westminster, is a statue, unfortunately mutilated, of S. Edward, 
K.M. (9). 

2 The Celtic proprietary dedications stand quite apart from the usual 
personal dedications, and require detailed and lengthy treatment, for which room in this volume. There are admirable treatises on the 
subject by Rice Rees, Borlase, Baring-Gould, and others, which are 
detailed in the Bibliography prefixed to this volume, and to these the reader 
is referred. It may be taken as generally true, that in this book, as in Miss 
Arnold-Forster's three volumes, the dedications dealt with do not refer 
to Wales. 


T. P. 

S. Eclward, K.M. . S. Kenelm. 

West Front of Wells Cathedral 


are very important ; for by working out the groups of churches 
so named it may be possible to delimit the district within which 
the Celtic saint worked. 1 As has been pointed out above, it 
is not unusual to find the founder's dedication set aside in favour 
of a re-dedication to himself. The process was not ajways so 
drastic. Sometimes the original dedication was retained, but 
the founder's name was added ; e.g., Lichfield cathedral was 
dedicated by S. Chad to S. Mary; Ripon cathedral by S. 
Wilfrid to S. Peter ; Minster in Sheppey to S. Mary ; but the 
dedications are now to SS. Mary and Chad, SS. Peter and 
Wilfrid, and SS. Mary and Sexburga. 2 

Both these classes were quite outnumbered by the Personal 
Dedications, Of these we may distinguish two classes. The 
first has already been dealt with ; it comprises all those churches 
which are dedicated to the Second Person or the Third Person 
in the Godhead or to the Holy Trinity: it is a small class. 
The second class comprises what we may style Intercessory 
Dedications ; that it includes more than ten thousand examples 
will give some idea of the proportions which the doctrine of 
intercessory mediation ultimately assumed in the mediaeval 
Church. At first it seemed to be thought that intercession, to 
be effectual, should be made at the tomb of the saint whose 
mediation was desired the S. Peter, S. Paul, S. Apollinare, or 
the like or at any rate within the walls of his memorial church. 
But only one church in all Christendom contained the body of 
a S. Peter, a S. Paul, or the like, Even when the relics of the 
saints became more widely diffused, there was many a village 
church in Christendom without even the fragment of a relic of 
the saints whose aid and mediation it was desired to obtain. 
This necessitated an extension of the personal dedication. 

1 "There can be little doubt that the primitive churches were not dedicated 
at all in the modern sense ; in other words, they were not put under the 
protection of any particular saint or patron. The earliest churches were 
named after the person who built them, or from the locality in which they 
stood, or from some marked characteristic of the building. If they bore 
the name of a saint or martyr it was because they were erected over his 
grave or contained his relics, and thus became in a sense his monument " 
(Precentor Venables in Arch&ological Journal, xxxviii. 366). 

2 "In most cases," says Mr Kerslake, "the proprietary dedication has 
been ousted altogether ; in some it has been allowed to remain as part of 
a * compound dedication'; <?.., Crowland is dedicated no longer to the 
primitive local saint only, but to S. Mary, S. Bartholomew and S. 
Guthlac. So also with the dedications of S. Peter and S. Etheldreda 
at Ely, S. Andrew and S. David at S. David's, S. Teilo and S. Peter 
at LlandafF.* 

S. Edmund. S. Alban. S. Olave. 

From a painting on rood- From the brass of Abbot From a rood-screen in 
screen in Norfolk. Delamere, in S. Albans Norfolk, 


J. H. P. 

S. Anthony. S. Denis. S. Stephen. 

From" an illuminated MS. From a painting on the From painted glass, Nettle- 
rood-screen, Grafton stead church, Kent. 
Regis, Northants. 


All the mediaeval churches of the Roman Rule were placed 
beneath the protection of some saint, even if the church con- 
tained no fragment of him. Of these intercessory dedications 
in England some 6000 are addressed to Biblical saints, the 
personages in the Old and New Testaments. Such dedications 
are obvious and natural ; and being obvious and natural are as 
a rule not of great interest; it is when we reach the non- 
Biblical saints that the real interest of the study of dedications 
begins. For the present we will take the Biblical and non- 
Biblical saints together ; and we will arrange them, if we may 
so say, in order of merit, at any rate in the order of their 
respective popularity as shown in the dedications of English 
churches up to the end of the seventeenth century. The 
following are the respective numbers of English dedications up 
to that period. 

In the following analysis of Miss Arnold-Forster's statistics 
the dedications include those both of churches and chapelries. 
Eighteenth and nineteenth century dedications are here, as far 
as possible, excluded ; they are included in Miss Arnold- 
Forster's tables ; hence her lists will be found to give larger 
totals than are set out here. A few eighteenth and nineteenth 
century examples may have crept in under the heading of 
compound or alternative dedications, or dedications of de- 
molished churches, but they will not be numerous : nevertheless 
it should be remembered that the totals here given may be slightly 
overstated. And it must be borne in mind, that whatever 
pains be taken, results can only be approximately correct : there 
is a very large percentage of dedications of doubtful authenticity 
as well as many that are still unknown. A very large number 
of chapels were built in the fifteenth and sixteenth century at 
the request of hamlets far from a parish church, the rights of 
baptism and burial, however, being reserved to the mother church. 
At the Reformation the vast majority of these chapels perished, 
and even when they are known to have existed or exist still, it 
is seldom that the dedication can be ascertained. The dedica- 
tions of chapels inside churches, e&, of S. Erasmus in West- 
minster abbey, are not included in the statistics. Where there is 
a compound dedication, e.g., to SS. Peter and Paul, each saint 
is credited with one dedication. If there are two or more 
dedications, and it cannot be ascertained which is the correct 
one, each saint is credited with one ; e.g., if some accounts give 
S. Mary and others S. Sampson as the patron saint of a 
particular church, one dedication is credited to S. Mary and one 
to S. Sampson. Dedications are included of churches which 
have perished but of which documentary evidence exists. The 

S. Erasmus. S. Augustine of Hippo. S. Cornelius. 

From painted glass, San- From an illustrated MS. From a Flemish MS, 

dringham church, Norfolk. 

J. H. P. 

S. Clement S. Leonard. S. Hubert 

From the Lubeck Passionals. From stained glass, San- From a painting by 

dringham church, Wilhern. 



table below does not stop at the Reformation, but includes 
dedications up to the end of the seventeenth century ; very 
few churches, however, were built between the Reformation and 
the Restoration, and not many between 1660 and 1700. So 
the results therefore may be taken as a view almost wholly 
of Pre-Reformation dedications. 

D. w. 

S, John Evangelist. 



S. Stephen - - 46 
S. Thomas the 

Apostle - - 46 
S. Anne - - 41 
S. Clement - - 41 
S. Denys or Diony- 
sus 41 
Our Lord - - 38 
S. Chad - - 33 
S. Matthew - - 33 
S. Gregory - - 32 
S. Philip - - 31 
S. Augustine of 

Canterbury - 30 

S. Luke - - 28 

S. James the Less - 26 

S. David, Wales - 23 

S. Faith - - 23 
S. Benedict of Cas- 

sino 20 
S, Dunstan - - 20 
S. Bridget or Bride 19 
S. Edward the Con- 
fessor - - 17 
S. Ethelbert- - 16 
S. Edith of Poles- 
worth - - 15 
S. German - - 15 
S.Hilda - - 15 
S. Petrox - - 14 
S. Barnabas - - 13 
S. Olave or Olaf - 13 
S. Etheldreda - 12 
S. Werburga- - 12 
S. Alban - - n 
S. Pancras of Taor- 

mina 10 

I. The Blessed Virgin 



fAll Saints, 1,217 } 


2.\ or 

I 2 ^ ^ 

[All Hallows, 38 j 


(S. Peter, 1,129 j 


3.J S. Peter ad vin- 



{ cula, II 

4. S. Michael or S. 


Michael and All 





5. S. Andrew - 



6._S^John Baptist 



|"y^ Nj^frnla.*? - 



8. S. James the Elder 


9. S. Paul 



10. Holy Trinity 



II. S. Margaret - 



12. S. Lawrence - 



13. S. Mary Magdalene 



14. S. John, Apostle 

and Evangelist - 



15. S. Leonard - 



1 6. S. Martin 



17. S. Bartholomew - 


1 8. S. Giles 



19. S. Helena 



20. S. George 


21. Holy Cross or Holy 

5 1 - 


1 06 





23. S. Cuthbert - 



24. S. Oswald 

6 7 


25. S. Botolph - 

6 4 


26. S. Catherine - 



27. S. Edmund - 



28. S. Swithin - 


29. S.Wilfrid - 




S. Dorothea. 

From a MS. in the 
Bodleian Library. 

S. Clare. S. Faith. 

From the Spanish Gallery From a brass in S. Lawrence 
in the Louvre. church, Norwich. 

J. H. P. 

S. Frideswide, 

From Cardinal Wolsey's Rvangelisterium in the 
library of Magdalen College, Oxford, 

S. Martha. 

From a painting at 



Nine Dedications 

60. S. Christopher 

61. S. Cyril 

62. S. Guthlac 

63. S.Jude 

68. S. Cadoc 

69. S. Columba 

70. S. Maurice 

64. S. Kenelm 

65. S. Kentigern or Mungo 

66. S. Mildred 

67. S. Teilo 

Eight Dedications 

73. S. John of Beverley 

71. S. Patrick 

72. S. Rumbald 

| 74. S. Julian Hospitaller 

Six Dedications 

75. S. Dubricius 

76. S. Eadburga 

77. S. Felix 

78. S. Gabriel 

79. S. Mark 

80. S. Pancras of Rome 

8 1. S. Remigius or 

82. S. Samson of Dol 

83. S. Vincent 

84. S. Winifred 

85. S. Anthony the Great 

86. S. Sepulchre 

Five Dedications 

87. S. Agnes 

88. S. Alphege 

89. S. Blaise 

90. King Charles Martyr 

91. Holy Innocents 

92. S. Julitta 

93. S. Kebi 

94. S. Leger 

95. S. Milburga 

96. S. Paulinus 

97. S. Piran 

98. S. Radegund 

99. S. Ebba 

Four Dedications 

100. S. Agatha 

101. S. Aldhelm 

1 02. S. Alkmund 

103. All Souls 

104. S. Cecilia 

105. S. Godwald 

106. S. Hybald 

107. S. Neot 

1 08. S. Ninian 

109. S. Nun or Nonna 

1 10. S. Osyth or Sitha 
in. S. Owen or Ouen 

112. S. Rumon 

113. Wynwalloe or Wonnow 



S. Blaise. 

From painted glass, Christ Church 
cathedral, Oxford. 

S. Agatha. 

From painted glass, Winchester 

J. H. P. 

S. Lawrence. 

From painted glass, Nettlestead 
church, Kent, 

S. Etheldreda. 

From Porter's Lives of the 




Three Dedications 

114. Holy Spirit or Holy 


115. S. Bega or Bees 

116. S. Constantine of Corn- 


1 17. S. Cosmas 
1 1 3. S. Damian 

119. S. Edith of Wilton 

120. S. Erme 

121. S. Eustachius 

122. S. Hilary of Poitiers 

1 23. Martyrs or Holy Martyrs' 

124. S. Ives 

125. S. Magnus 

126. S. Melan 

127. S. Menaacus 

128. S. Meugan 

129. S. Nectan 

130. S. Osmond 

131. S. Quiricus or Cyril 

132. S. Senan 

133. S. Simphorian 

134. S. Theobald 

135. S. Wenn or Gwen 

1 36. S. Wyston or Winston or 


Two Dedications 

137. S. Advent or D\vyn- 


138. S. Aldate or Eldad 

139. S. Alkelcla 

140. S. Aroan or Arvans 

141. S. Basil 

142. S. Bertoline or Bertram 

143. S. Brandan or Brendon 

144. S. Breock or Brioc 

145. S. Candida or Whyte 

146. S. Clare 

147. S. Cleodicus or Clydog 

148. S. Cornelius 

149. S. Crida or Creed or 


1 50. S. Deiniol or Deinst 

151. S. Eanswith 

152. S. Egwin 

153. S. Elphin or Elgin 

154. S. Erth or Herygh or 


155. S. Everilda or Emeldis 

156. S. Evilla or Eval or 

Noell or Uvell 

157. S 

158. S, 

159. S, 

1 60. S, 

161. S, 

162. S, 

163. S, 

164. S, 

165. S. 

166. S, 

167. S, 

168. S, 

169. S, 

170. S, 
i/i. S, 
172. S, 
173- S, 

174. S, 

1/5- S, 

176. S, 

177- S. 

Genesius or Genewys 
or Gennys 


Mabena or Mabyn 
Melorius or Melor 
Mewan or Mevan 
Paternus or Padarn 

Sidwell or Sativola 
Tesiliah or Tyssilio 
Tewrdic or Tewdwr 
or Theodoric 



S. Barbara. 

From a MS. in the Bodleian 

S. Lucy. 

From a painting in the Spanish 
Gallery in the Louvre. 

J. H. P. 

S. Agnes. 
From painted glass. 

S. Catherine 

From stained glass, West Wickham 
church, Kent. 


One Dedication 

1 80. S. Acca 

1 8 1. S. Adeline 

182. S. Aidan 

183. S. Aldwyn 

184. S. Allen 

185. S. Arilda 

1 86. S. Aubyn or Albinus 

187. S. Austell or Hawstyl 

1 88. S. Barbara 

189. S. Barrog 

190. S. Bartholomew of Fame 

191. S. Brannoc 

192. S. Branwallader 

193. S. Breaca 

194. S. Brevita 

195. S. Briavel 

196. S. Britius or Brice 

197. S. Bruard or Breward 

198. S. Buriena 

199. S. Cadwaladr 

200. S. Calixtus 

20 1. S. Carantoc or Cairnech 

202. S. Cassyon . 

203. S. Clarus or Clair or 


204. S. Clether 

205. S. Collen 

206. S. Congar 

207. S. Corentin 

208. S. Crewenne 

209. S. Cuthburga 

210. S. Cyprian 

211. S. Day or Dye 

212. S. Decuman 

213. S. Dilpe 

214. S. Dinabo 

215. S. Dingat 

216. S. Disen or Disibod 

217. S. Dochoe 

218. S. Dominic 

219. S. Eadnor 

220. S. Eata 

221. S. Edwin, King 

222. S. Edwould 

223. S. Egelwine 

224. S. Elidius 

225. S. Eloy or Eligius 

226. S. Enoder 

227. S. Enodoc or Wenedocus 

228. S. Erney 

229. S. Ethelburga of Barking 

230. S. Ethelwald or Adel- 


231. S. Fabian 

232. S. Felicitas 

233. S. Feock 

234. S. Fimbarries or Finbar 

235. Four Crowned Martyrs 

(Quattuor Coronati) 

236. S. Francis of Assisi 

237. S. Geraint or Gerrans 

238. S. Germoe 

239. S. Gluvius 

240. S. Gomonda 

241. S. Goran or Guron 

242. S. Goven 

243. S. Gwithian or Gothian 

244. S. Hardulph 

245. Holy Angels 

246. S. Hugh of Lincoln 

247. S. Hydroc 

248. S. Illogan 

249. S. Illtyd 

250. S. Ive or Ivo 

251. S. Jerome 

252. S. John de Sepulchre 
2 53- S. Joseph of Arimathea 

254. S. Julian or Juliana 

255. S. Kew 

256. S. Keyna or Kayne or 


257. S. Kingsmark or Cyn- 


258. S. Kuet or Knuet 

259. Queen Kyneburga 

260. Abbess Kyneburga 


S. Giles. 

From painted glass, Sandringham 
church, Norfolk. 

S. Wilfrid. 

From Masculi Encomia 


J. H. P. 

Si Ambrose. 

From Callot's Images. 

S. Veronica. 

From a MS. in the Bodleian Library. 


261. S. Laud or Lo 

262. S. Levan 

263. S. Lioba 

264. S. Lucian 

265. S. Mapley 

266. S. Marcellina 

267. S. Marvenne or Mere- 

wen n a 

268. S. Materiana 

269. S. Matthias 

270. S. Mawes or Mauditus 

271. Mawnanus or Mawnan 

272. S. Maxentius 

273. S. Medardus or Medard 

274. S. Menefrida or Minver 

275. S. Meran or Merryn 

276. S. Meriadoc 

277. S. Merther 

278. S. Metherian 

279. S. Mewbred 

280. S.ModwenorModwenna 

281. S. Moran or Maruan 

282. S. Morwenna 

283. S. Onslow or Onolaus 

284. S. Pandiana 

285. S. Pega 

286. S. Petronilla 

287. S. Pinnock 

288. S. Protus or Pratt 

289. S. Probus 

290. S. Protasius 

291. S. Quintin or Quentin 

292. S. Ricarius or Riquier 

293. S. Richard of Chichester 

or de \Vych 

294. S. Robert of Knares- 


295. S. Ruthin 

296. S. Salvy 

297. S. Samson of York 

298. S. Sexburga 

299. S. Silin 

300. S. Silvester 

301. S. Sithney 

302. S. Stedian 

303. S. Stithian 

304. S. Tallan 

305. S. Teath or Tetha 

306. S. Teggvyddy or Tegg- 


307. S. Torney 

308. S. Tudy 

309. S. Twinnock 

310. S. Uny or Ewny 

311. S. Veep 

312. S. Walstan of Bawburgh 

313. S. Wandregisilus 

314. S. Wei vela 

315. S, Wendreda 

316. S. Wendron or G wendron 

317. S. Wen nap 

318. S. Weonard 

319. S. William of Norwich 

320. S. Winnow 

321. S. Withburga 

322. S. Wolfrida or Wilfrcda 

323. S. Wolstan or Wulstan 

324. S. Woolos 

325. S. WynnerorGwinearor 


What must strike every one in this analysis, especially in the 
lists of dedications which occur only once or twice, is the 
extraordinary number of saints whom nobody has ever heard of. 
These are nearly all from Celtic districts, especially from Corn- 
wall, or from districts adjacent to Cornwall and Wales. 1 They 
go back to the early days of Christianity in this country ; nearly 

1 It may be repeated that the above list includes dedications in England 
including Cornwall, but not those in Wales. 




S. Guthlac. 
From a MS. in the 
Cottoniari Library. 

S. Dunstan. 

From painted glass in a window of the 
Bodleian Library. 

S. Oswald. 

From the Lubeck Passionate. 

S. Nicholas. 

From a MS. in the Bodleian 


all of them did their work 
before Augustine from the 
South and Aidan from the 
North set forth to evangelise 
Anglo-Saxon England. The 
vast majority of these Celtic 
saints, as the table shows, 
have only one or two dedica- 
tions to their credit. They 
perhaps were saints in the 
opinion of their own parish, 
and in the opinion of the 
next parish ; but their reputa- 
tion extended little further. 
The fact is, they were not 
saints at all at the outset; 
but merely missioners who 
first evangelised the village, 
or persons who built the first 
humble Christian church of 
wattle or wood. Time rolled 
on ; in many cases the whole 
story of the foundation of the 
church had long been for- 
gotten. Finally, on the an- 
alogy of churches dedicated 
to a S. Andrew, a S. Leonard, 
a S. Michael, it was concluded 
that' the ancient missioner or 
church-builder whose name 
clung to his church was him- 
self a saint also. 

The Virgin and Child. 
S. Lawrence, Ludlow. 



List of Biblical Saints, with Number of Dedications, arranged in Order of 
Popularity The Blessed Virgin S. Peter S. Michael S. Andrew 
S. John Baptist S. James the Greater S. Paul S. Mary Magdalene 
S. John the Evangelist S. Stephen S. Thomas the Apostle S. Anne 
S. James the Less All Souls All Saints S. Petronilla. 

The Annunciation. Bench end at Warkworth. 


WE may now take out the personages in the gospel story, 
and arrange them in the order of their popularity as shown 
by the dedications. A very 
remarkable order it is ! 


1. The Blessed Virgin 2,335 

2. S. Peter 

3. S. Michael - 

4. S. Andrew - 

5. S. John Baptist 

6. S. James the Elder 

7. S. Paul - - . - 

8. S. Mary Magdalene 

9. S. John the Apostle 
10.- S. Bartholomew - 

11. S. Stephen - 

12. S. Thomas the 

Apostle - 

1 3. S. Anne 

14. S. Matthew - 

1 5. S. Philip 

1 6. S. Luke 

17. S. James the Less - 

1 8. S. Barnabas - - 

19. S. Jude 

20. S. Gabriel - - 

21. S.Mark 

22. The Holy Innocents 

23. S. Joseph of Ari- 


24. S. Matthias - 

25. S. Petronilla - 

The Blessed Virgin 
(2,335 Dedications] 

p. A-c. 

The Annunciation, 
Wells Cathedral 

The position of this first name explains itself. History is 
crowded with examples of woman's appeals for man. And to 
whom should God listen so readily as to Our Lady, His Mother 
on earth, whom mediaeval art loved to represent as crowned 
by her Son, and seated beside Him on her throne, ever ready 


W. M, D. 

The Annunciation; Gresford, Denbigh. 


and able to make intercession to Him for all who brought their 
supplications to her? At first indeed this dedication is not 
one of the most common. In Bede's list there are but three 
dedications to Our Lady ; those to SS. Peter and Paul out- 
number all the rest put together. But in the twelfth century, 
under the influence of S. Bernard and Pope Innocent the Third 
(1198-1216), a great impulse of increased veneration for the 
Blessed Virgin was felt through Western Christendom. At the 
end of the twelfth and throughout the following century Lady 
chapels were built, or were rebuilt on a larger scale, and hundreds 
of parish churches set apart one of their altars to Our Lady. 
From this time her dedications continually increased in number; 
even Henry VIII. added to them, by re-dedicating to "Christ 
and the Blessed Virgin Mary " the cathedrals of Chester, Durham, 
and Rochester. Many were the forms in which love and 
reverence for the Mother of God found expression. 1 Sometimes 
the dedication was to " S. Mary " or to " S. Mary the Virgin," 
sometimes to the "Blessed Virgin" or the "Blessed Virgin 
Mary" ; twice to " Our Lady" ; twice to " Our Lady of Pity" ; 
once to " S. Mary of Charity " ; once to u S. Mary de Grace " ; 
once to " Lady S. Mary " ; once to our " Lady of Sorrows " ; 3 
once to the " Mother of God." Sometimes there were several 
churches in one town with this dedication ; to distinguish these 
we get such curious forms as " S. Mary the Great," " S. Mary 
the More," or " S. Mary le More," " S. Mary Senior " ; and again 
" S. Mary the Less," and " S. Mary Junior." 

To make up the total of 2,335, the dedications have to be 
added which commemorate the festivals of the Blessed Virgin. 
" Lady Day," March 25th, was observed as the festival of the 
Annunciation as far back as the fifth century. It is the more 
strange then that there is only one example of a dedication to 
the '* Annunciation." There is but one also to the " Purifica- 
tion," one to the "Salutation," 2.2., the "Visitation," and one 
to the "Conception." There are twelve dedications to the 
" Nativity," which was observed as a feast in the fifth century. 
August the 1 5th, the feast of the Assumption, is still a great 
harvest holiday on the Continent. It was believed that the 

1 In the scene of the Annunciation much prominence is usually given to 
the archangel Gabriel, who frequently holds a scroll with the salutation At'e 
Maria, gratia plena^ benedicta tu in mulieribus et benedictus fructus ventris 
tui (30). In the Wells Annunciation, the treatment of which recurs in 
alabaster in the British Museum, Gabriel is a tiny angel (29). The lily is 
nearly always present. 

2 Her symbol a heart pierced with a sword appears on a stall end in 
Wensley church, Yorkshire. F. E. H. 


E. K. P. 

Assumption of the Blessed Virgin. 
Speke Chantry, Exeter Cathedral. 



Blessed Virgin did not die a natural 
death, but was "taken up" to heaven 
by her Son. There seem to be thirteen 
dedications to " The Assumption of the 
Virgin Mary," or to " Our Lady of 
Assumption," including Salisbury cathe- 
dral. 1 

5". Peter (1,140 Dedications] 

The frequency of this dedication is 
also natural. First, there was the great 
Roman influence, asserting the suprem- 
acy of S. Peter among the apostles. 
Secondly, there is the feeling that turned 
the scale against the Celtic Church in 
the Synod at Whitby, when the authority 
of S. Columba paled before that of the 
champion of the Roman party, the 
Prince of the Apostles, to whom Our 
Lord Himself promised the keys of 
heaven. "If Peter is the doorkeeper," 
said King Oswy, "I will in all things 
obey his decrees, lest when I come to 
the gates of the kingdom of heaven, 
there be none to open them." Dedica- 
tions to S. Peter are both numerous 
and ancient York minster was dedi- 
cated to S. Peter early in the seventh 
century ; Peterborough abbey not long 
after. Ely, Exeter, Gloucester, Peter- 
borough, Ripon, Winchester, and York 
cathedrals all have, or once had, dedica- 
tions to S. Peter. 2 As for the abbey 
of S. Peter, Westminster, when King 
Sebert of Essex built the first church^ in 
the seventh century on Thorney isle, 
a fisherman on the Lambeth marsh late 
one wintry eve saw 

" A strange wayfarer coining to his side 
Who bade him loose his boat and fix his oar, 
And row him straightway to the further 

1 Arnold- Forster, 41-50. 

, 51-55- 

S. Peter. 
Ran worth Rood-screen. 



H. P. 

S. Peter. 
West Front of Peterborough Cathedral. 



The stranger lands where " The Minster's outlined mass rose dim 
from the morass." " . 

" Lo, on a sudden all the pile is bright \ 
Nave, choir, and transept glorified with light ; 
While tongues of fire on quoin and carving play, 
And heavenly odours fair 
Come streaming with the floods of glory in, 
And^carols float along the happy air. 57 

It was S. Peter come to consecrate his own church. 

C. F. N. 

S. Michael weighing Souls. 
Wall painting at South Leigh, Oxon. 


When the Empress Eudocia visited Jerusalem, she was 
presented with the two chains with which S. Peter was bound. 
One she sent to Constantinople, where a church was built for 
it ; the other to Rome, where there is still an important church, 
S. Peter ad vincula, on the same site. From this latter chain 
the pope at times took filings to be presented as relics ; they 
were usually enclosed in a golden key ; such was the origin of 
the prison church of S. Peter ad vincula in the Tower of London, 
where lie Anne Boleyn and many others. 1 This dedication 
occurs in England about eleven times. In the vaulted chancel 
of S. Peter-in-the-East, Oxford, the. diagonal ribs are carved 
with a chain- pattern ; the original dedication therefore may 
have been " S. Peter ad vincula." The collect for Lammas Day, 
*'.*., " loaf-mass day," August ist, in the Sarum Manual, " Bene- 
dictio novorum fructuum," runs, " O God, Who deliveredst blessed 
Peter the Apostle from his chains, and set him, untouched, at 
liberty ; deliver us, we beseech Thee, from the bonds of our 
sins, and mercifully protect us from all evil." 

S. Michael (687 Dedications] 

The great archangel is only mentioned in the Bible five 
times, 2 but dedications to him either as " S. Michael " or " S. 
Michael and All Angels," are extraordinarily common. He was 
especially the protector of high places, as one sees at S. 
Michael's Mount, Cornwall, facing Mt. S. Michael, Normandy, 
S. Michael's chapel at Le Puy, perched on the stump of an old 
volcano, and Skelig Michel on the west coast of Ireland. 
On the summit of Brent Tor, in the middle of Dartmoor, is 
a church dedicated to S. Michael, where the custom used to be to 
commence service with the' Absolution, the penance of climbing 
up so steep a hill being considered as equivalent to the recital 
of the Confession. 3 

This chapel in many churches was placed in a loft, eg., over 
a porch; at Christ Church, Hampshire, it occupies the whole 
space between the vault and roof of the Lady chapel, where it 
retains the name of S. Michael's loft In the most common 
representation in which the saint tramples down a devil, or a 
devil in the shape of a dragon, the symbolism is that of the final 
victory of the principle of Good over that of Evil, which is to 

1 Charles Browne, Transactions of St Patefs Ecclesiological Society, 282. 

2 But there, is a host of passages in which the commentators identified 
S. Michael with persons not mentioned by name in the Biblical narrative. 

3 Charles Browne, /#</., 279. 


W. D. 

S. Michael. 
Ranworth Rood-screen. 


be found everywhere in ancient Egyptian art, and indeed in all 
religious art. 

The battling of S. Michael and the dragon is taken from 
Revelation xii. 7 : 

"And there was war in heaven: Michael and his angels fought 
against the dragon ; and the dragon fought and his angels, and prevailed 
not ; neither was their place found any more in heaven. And the great 
dragon was cast out, that old serpent called the Devil and Satan, which 
deceiveth the whole world : he was cast out into the earth, and 'his 
angels were cast out with him." 

Secondly, S. Michael is the leader of the Church Militant in 
heaven, and so the protector and . champion of the Church 
Militant on earth. Thirdly, he has succeeded to the functions 
of the pagan Hermes or Mercury, who is himself derivative 
from Egyptian art ; hence he is represented with a pair of 
scales, in which he is weighing the souls of the departed, 
and which often a little imp is trying. <fco pull down ; e.g., 
on the grille of Henry the Seventh's monument at West- 
minster and in a wall painting at South Leigh, Oxfordshire 


What especially distinguishes him is a series of apparitions, 

the first at Colossae in Phrygia ; this at once led to a special cult 
in the Eastern Church, and early in the fourth century the 
Emperor Constantine built and dedicated to him a magnificent 
church in Constantinople. In the West also there were famous 
apparitions of S. Michael. In the fifth century he appeared in a 
high place, viz., on the summit of Mount Gargano in Apulia, 
where he revealed a cave-church with three altars, and a spring 
of pure water which was sovran against diseases. In the next 
century there was a great plague in Rome, and S. Gregory, 
afterwards pope, for three days headed a procession through the 
streets, singing what were afterwards known as the Great 
Litanies. On the third day, when opposite the Mole or Mau- 
soleum of Hadrian, Gregory beheld the archangel alight upon 
the Mole, sheathing a bloody sword, and the plague was stayed. 
In the ninth century a chapel dedicated to S. Michael was built 
on the Mole : Ecclesia Sancti Angeli usque ad coelos^ and ever 
since the Mole of Hadrian has been known as the Castle of Sant' 
Angelo. In modern times a bronze statue has been placed on 
the summit of the castle, the work of a Flemish sculptor ; " not 
beyond criticism ; but with its vast wings poised in air, and seen 
against the deep blue sky of Rome or lighted up by a golden 
sunset, to me ever like what it was intended to represent a 

s. MICHAEL 39 

vision." 1 A fourth legend, which is but a variant of that of 
Mount Gargano, describes an appearance of S. Michael to a 
Bishop of Avranches, which led to the building of a church on 
the lofty rock opposite Pontorson ; this church developed in the 
twelfth century into one of the greatest Romanesque abbey 
churches in Normandy. Dedications to S. Michael occur at all 
periods, but many are of great antiquity ; it is remarkable also 

The Blessed Virgin and S. Michael. 

that they are peculiarly common in Celtic districts and in the 
North of England. No saint is more frequently depicted, for, 
being a fighter, and clad in armour and vanquishing a dragon, 
he was admirably adapted for pictorial representation, whether 
in stained glass, where the coils of a great ruby dragon told 
with great effect, or on bench ends, as at Haverfordwest, ^or 
on misericords, as in Norwich cathedral. Moreover, the joint 

i Mrs Jameson's Sacred and Legendary Art, i. 98. The apparitions of 
S. Michael are given at length in the Golden Legend. 



S. Andrew. 
Ranworth Rood-screen. 

dedication gave recognition to the deep- 
seated mediaeval belief in the ministry 
of angels, On S. Michael's Day, 2gth 
September, the English Church still 
prays God " mercifully to grant that, as 
Thy holy Angels always do Thee 
service in . heaven, . so by Thy appoint- 
ment they may defend and succour us 
on earth." The angelic host, moreover, 
were peculiarly adaptable for pictorial 
treatment ; angels and cherubim and 
seraphim in the windows abode in the 
trefoils and quatrefoils of the tracery 
bars, and perched on every hammer- 
beam of the roofs. 1 It is to be noted 
that S. Michael's Day is properly the 
8th of May; Michaelmas Day, 2Qth 
September, is the anniversary of the 
church built in honour of S. Michael 
on Mount Gargano. 2 

5. Andrew (637 Dedications} 

It is not easy to see why S. Andrew 
should be such a favourite, surpassing 
in popularity even S. James and S. 
John and S. Paul. Fuller says : " I read 
at the Transfiguration that Peter, James 
and John were admitted to behold 
Christ, but Andrew was excluded. So 

1 See illustrations of the roofs of Woolpit, 
Knapton, Fressingfield, East Stonham, etc., in 
the writer's Introduction to English Church 

2 At South Leigh (35) on the right are 
seen little demons trying to weigh down the 
scales, and to plunge the souls of the wicked 
into hell mouth which yawns below. On the 
left a soul in the scales obtains the intercession 
and help of Our Lady, who holds a rosary in 
her left hand. At Ranworth, S. Michael with 
uplifted sword is about to slay the dragon on 
which he stands (37). S. Michael and the 
dragon are also represented on the rood-screen 
at Ashton, Devon (213). 


again at the reviving of the daughter of the ruler of the 
synagogue these three were let in and Andrew shut out. 
Lastly, in the Agony in Gethsemane the aforesaid three were 
called to be witnesses thereof, and still Andrew left behind." 
On the other hand, S. Andrew was the Protoclete, the first called 
of the apostles. And two of the very earliest and most 
important churches in the history of Anglo-Saxon Christianity, 
Rochester cathedral and Hexham abbey, were and are still 
dedicated to S. Andrew. S. Augustine of Canterbury had come 
on his mission from the monastery of S. Andrew on the Cselian 
Hill at Rome, and he dedicated Rochester cathedral to S. 
Andrew. And when S. Wilfrid went to Rome, he prepared 
himself in "S. Andrew's oratory" for his mission to unify 
English Christianity ; and when he built his church at Hexham, 
of which the crypt and the foundations of the apse still exist, he 
dedicated it to S. Andrew. Of Scotland S. Andrew is the 
patron saint, and thus his cross saltire finds its way into the 
Union Jack. As we shall see, the popularity of S. Andrew is 
mainly of literary origin, his mission labours having been 
written up in most amazing fashion. 

6". John Baptist (500 Dedications) 

John the Baptist was indeed "a burning and a shining 
light" to our forefathers; in popularity he surpassed all the 
apostles and evangelists except Peter and Andrew. The pre- 
sumption therefore is that when a church is anciently dedicated 
to " S. John/* it is the Baptist, not the apostle, who is to be 
credited with it. The chief festivals of S. John the Baptist are 
at midsummer, S. John's Eve and S. John's Day, which have 
superseded a primeval solar feast. But some villages still 
commemorate in their feast on 2Qth August the " Decollation of 
S. John Baptist" The Baptist was the patron of the Knights 
Hospitallers, whose function was to guard the Holy Sepulchre 
at Jerusalem, and to provide convoy and protection for pilgrims 
to and from the Holy Land. The plan of their church at 
Little Maplestead, Essex, with circular nave surrounded' by an 
aisle, is a repeat of that of the mother church in Jerusalem, and 
the church is dedicated to S. John of Jerusalem. For scores of 
years the gateway of S. John, Clerkenwell, appeared on the 
outer cover of the Gentleman's Magazine ; here are still the 
headquarters of the revived order of S. John of Jerusalem. It 
is very remarkable that the Baptist should have had so vast a 
popularity. Unlike S. Andrew, S. Nicholas, S. Margaret, and 
scores of others, his story had not been and could not be 


"written up" ; all there was of it is told shortly but completely 
in the gospels, and received subsequently little literary embellish- 
ment. But this short gospel story was admirably adapted^ for 
pictorial embellishment (vi). There was the robe of camel hair 
the baptism in the river Herod's feastthe dance or rather 
tumbling the decollation of the Baptistthe bringing of the 
head in a charger. Moreover, the Baptist had the merit of 
distinctivcness. To put a book in the hand of S. John 

The Baptist and S. John. 

Evangelist told little ; there was a crowd of saints who had 
written gospels, epistles, theological treatises. But the Baptist's 
vestment of camel's hair identified him at once to everybody. 
Again, the commemoration of his nativity on 24th June connected 
him with one of the very greatest festivals of the Pre-Christian 
world And on the Christian side he was connected above aH 
other saints with the great sacrament of Baptism, which in the 
mediaeval world still vied to some extent with the sanctity of 
the Lord's Supper. And so he is represented hundreds and 



thousands of times in missals, 'wall paintings, mosaics, tapestry, 
bench ends, statuettes, stained glass; his image frequently 
appeared in Early Christian baptisteries, but, strange to say, 
very seldom indeed on mediaeval fonts, even when, as in the 
Seven Sacrament fonts of East Anglia, 1 the font received most 
elaborate sculptural treatment In the Italian Renaissance, on the 
other hand, the Baptist obtained charm- 
ing recognition, as a small figure in 
white marble standing on the edge of 
the font. The Baptist is one of the 
very few who has two saint's days in 
the Calendar; his great festival, S. 
John's Day, preceded by S. John's Eve, 
being at midsummer on 24th June ; 
while his death is commemorated on 
2Qth August 

S. James the Greater (414 Dedications) 

It was not the simplicity of the Bible 
story and of the words of Eusebius 
that gave S. James his great popularity, 
but the legendary stories, especially 
that of the battle when he rode with 
Christian warriors of Spain and wrought 
death and defeat on the Moors. So he 
became the patron saint of Spain, and 
the Spanish Canterbury bears his name, 
l% Santiago," Sant lago, S. James. 
This church was dedicated under the 
title of S. James the Apostle, "San 
Giacomo Apostolo," which in time, 
being shortened to " Compostella," be- 
came so unintelligible that the Spanish 
term for S. James or Giacomo was 
added, giving the city its present redupli- 
cated title of Santiago de Compostella. 

The form "James " appears to be Celtic, and may have come 
to us through the Scotch kings, who were styled Hamish^ i.e^ 
James. The Syriac form, however, was Yacoub, and this was 
retained in the Latin and Greek forms of Jacobus, or Jacob. 
Here and there the ancient and correct form is retained in 

S. James the Greater. 

1 See the writer's Fonts and Font Covers for illustrations and descriptions 
of these, pp. 257-264. 


b. w. 

S. John Evangelist. S. James the Greater. 

Henry the Seventh's Chapel, Westminster. 



dedications ; e.g., in the twelfth-century 
church of SS. Philip and Jacob at 

S. James was par 'excellence the 
patron of pilgrims, and being usually 
represented in pilgrim dress, with a 
scalloped shell fastened to his hat, 
and a long staff and a wallet, has 
the merit of being easily recognis- 
able. As all the world and his wife 
went pilgriming in the thirteenth, 
fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, re- 
presentations of S. James and dedi- 
cations in his honour continually 
increased in vogue. It is not possible 
to state with precision how many 
dedications he has ; for some may 
belong to S. James the Less, and vice 
versa. 1 

S. Paul (326 Dedications] 

Most striking of all is the com- 
paratively low position of S. Paul ; 
modern Christendom would perhaps 
put him at the top of the list Even 
the figures given fail to represent the 
unpopularity of this dedication. For 
of the 326 dedications, no less than 
283 are "double dedications," viz., to 
"S. Peter and S. Paul." If we deduct 
those dedications in which S. Paul is 
indebted for his position mainly to 
the popularity of ~S. Peter, the total 
is actually reduced to 43. And some, 
even of the 43, are suspect; in some 
cases they are certainly dedications to 
S. Pol de Leon, or to Pawl. Hen, or 
to Paulinus. Among the earliest are 

1 In a statue at Westminster S. James has 
a staff and wallet ; on his hat is a scallop 
shell (44). There is a similar representation 
on the grille of Henry the Seventh's tomb 

S. Paul. 
Ranworth Rood-screen. 


D. W. 

S. Martha or S. Elizabeth. S. Mary Magdalene. 

Henry the Seventh's Chapel, Westminster. 

S. PAUL 47 

the dedications of S. Paul's cathedral, London, and that ,of 
Jarrow. Benedic Biscop had dedicated Monkwearmouth to 
S. Peter ; so he dedicated Jarrow, which he built later, to S. 
Paul. Similarly S. Peter's is the West Minster, and S. Paul's the 
East Minster of London. The two saints are commemorated 
together on 2Qth June, and both, if Eusebius' statements are 
warranted, suffered martyrdom together on the same day. 

SS. Mary Magdalene and Barbara. 

S. Paul is represented as tall, broad-shouldered, dignified, with a 
bald forehead and a long beard, and holding point downward 
before him the long sword by which he was decapitated. 1 

1 On the Ranworth screen S. Paul is represented with the sword pointing 
upward: usually it points downward. In Exeter cathedral, on the vault of 
S. Paul's chapel and on the tomb of Bishop Marshall, S. Paul holds the 
sword upwards by the point: this is said to represent "the sword of the 
spirit which is the word of God" and not the sward of martyrdom 
E. K. P. 

4 8 


D. AND P. 

Female Saint and S. Mary Magdalene. 
West Front of Wells Cathedral. 


S. Mary Magdalene (187 Dedications} 

The life-story of S. Mary Magdalene has been enriched by 
confounding her first with Mary of Bethany, secondly with 4t the 
woman that was a sinner," thus making; her to be a woman of 
evil life, an assertion for which there is not a grain of evidence. 
Nevertheless our Christian forefathers believed it, and practically 
everybody believes it nowadays. Not only were 187 churches 
and chapelries dedicated to her, but she has a college at Oxford 
and another at Cambridge. Probably some of her dedications 
have been shortened to " S. Mary," and have been transferred to 
Our Lady. S. Mary Magdalene is indebted almost wholly for 
her renown to the pathetic episode in the gospel wrongly 
attributed to her. 1 Whether attributed wrongly or not, no words 
or act of Christ touched our fathers more deeply than this 
instance of loving-kindness to a sinner. We shall hear it echoed 
in the forgiveness, though but for one day each year, of Judas 
Iscariot, and in the words of God to Satan pleading against the 
harshness of his penalty. 2 It was not till much later days that 
the celebrated legend grew up of the oarless boat that brought 
Lazarus and Martha and S. Mary Magdalene and the two Maries 
to Provence, where the fame of the two Maries has quite 
eclipsed that of the others. 3 

6". John^ Apostle and Evangelist ( 1 8 1 Dedications] 

We should have expected more than 181 dedications to one 
who was at once the " beloved disciple " and the most spiritual 
of the evangelists. Perhaps King John contributed to make the 
name less popular both as a Christian name (it was largely 
superseded by " William ") and as a dedication name. Beverley 
minster is dedicated to S. John ; not to S. John of Beverley, 
as is often said, but to S. John Evangelist, a church of whom 
the archbishop found there when he retired to Beverley in the 
seventh century. Another John is S. John of Bridlington : to 
him also there may be dedications now appropriated to S. 
John Evangelist (199). 

1 In her statue, which is 6 feet i inches high, on the west front of Wells 
cathedral, she holds a box of ointment in her hand, and wears a flat cap and 
chin band (48). At Westminster she is shown with flowing locks ; she is 
opening the lid of the box of precious ointment (46). On the tomb of Henry 
the Seventh she has flowing locks and holds the vase in her left hand (47), 
She is also represented, with S. Barbara, on a bench end at Coombe-in- 
Teignhead, Devon (118). 

2 Page 99. 3 Page 145- 



S. John Evangelist. 
All Saints', York. 


S. John Evangelist is well commemorated in the Calendar, 
for he has a red-letter day and a black-letter day. The latter 
falls on 6th May under the name of " S. John ante portam 
Latinam" and keeps alive the tradition found in Jerome and 
TertulHan that on that day the saint was thrown into a cauldron 
of boiling oil before the Latin gate at- Rome and emerged 

S. S. 

S. John ante port. Laf, 
Misericord in Lincoln Minster, 

unharmed. In the east window of the south aisle of Lincoln 
minster is a figure of S.John immersed by order of the Emperor 
' Domitian in a cauldron of oil, placed over a furnace, the flames 
of which are fed by two figures, one on either side, by means 
of poles. 1 On a misericord in Lincoln minster the saint 
(mutilated) stands in a cauldron, round which are faggots which 
have just been lighted ; a man on 'the left blows up the fire with 

Nelson's Pointed Glass, 141. 


Mary Cleopas and her family. 
Holy Trinity, Goodramgate, York. 

w. s. w. 

S. John Evangelist. 

S. Stephen. 


a bellows. 1 Few, if any, village feasts are kept on 6th May, but 
on that day is held the annual commemoration of benefactors at 
S. John's College, Cambridge. Many a church now dedicated to 
the Evangelist, properly belongs to the Baptist; e.g., Ulpha 
chapel in Cumberland now bears the dedication of S. John 
Evangelist, but its fair is held on S. John Baptist's Day (Old 
Style). The Evangelist, or, as he is sometimes termed, S. John 
the Divine, i.e., the Theologian, had many claims to pre-eminence 
here and abroad. There was a tradition that a priest of Diana 
challenged him to drink a draught of poison, but that when he 
made the sign of the cross over it, Satan rose from it in the form 
of a dragon and flew away. Moreover, he was the patron of 
King Edward the Confessor, whose body, once venerated by the 
whole English race, reposes secure at Westminster behind the 
High Altar in the great shrine of marble and mosaic built for 
him by Henry III. 2 

S. Stephen (46 Dedications) 

English dedications to S. Stephen do not appear till 
Norman days. Perhaps the introduction of his name is due to 
the fact that William the Conqueror dedicated his own abbey 
church at Caen to S. Stephen. The influence of this great 
church in its plan and architectural design was very great in 
the history of English church building ; and its dedication to 
S. Stephen would naturally have grqat weight. The coronation 
of King Stephen took place on S. Stephen's Day ; and near the 
abbey of Westminster he built S. Stephen's chapel, greatly 
enlarged later by the Plantagenet kings ;*part of its structure is 
incorporated in the present Houses of Parliament. 3 

1 In the misericord at Lincoln the body of S. John has been broken 
away ; the man on the right has lighted a fire, which is beginning to curl 
up from the faggots ; the man on the left is using a bellows (51). There is 
a fine etching of this subject by Albrecht Durer in the print room of the 
British Museum. 

2 On the Ran worth rood-screen (61) and in a statue at Westminster, S. 
John bears in his left ha*nd a chalice and dragon ; with his right hand he has 
just made the sign of the cross (53). On the grille in Henry the Seventh's 
chapel he bears the poisoned chalice (16). The chalice and dragon with 
a palm appear on a shield in the Stanbury chantry chapel in Hereford 
cathedral (135). In stained glass at York he is shown with the eagle, his 
evangelistic emblem (50). 

3 In glass at Nettlestead S. Stephen is shown in a dalmatic as a deacon, 
holding in one hand a closed book and in the other a stone. At Ranworth, 
Norfolk, the stones are held in a napkin (55). At Westminster the stones 
support an open book (53). 


S. Stephen. 
H.a,n"vvortli Rood-screen. 


Rood-screen, Ranworth, Norfolk. 



5. Thomas the Apostle (46 Dedications] 

Many of these dedications no doubt belonged originally to 
S. Thomas of Canterbury, whose name Henry VIII. ordered to 
be deleted from the service books in 1537. Here and there, 
however, the dedication is genuine, e.g., S. Thomas Hospital, 
opposite the Houses of Parliament, replaces a hospital built in 
1215 by Peter de Rupibus, Bishop 
of Winchester, and dedicated to 
"S. Thomas the Apostle." So 
also at Stanhope in Durham the 
dedication of S. Thomas must be 
to the apostle, for the fair is held 
on 2 ist December. S. Thomas is 
often represented as a carpenter or 

According to the apocryphal Acts 
of the Apostles, he was appointed to 
India by casting of lots. And when 
he came there, he was brought before 
King Gudnaphar (an actual personage, 
who was reigning near the Punjab, 
A.D. 46), who asked him, "What art 
thou skilled to make? " And Thomas 
replied, "In wood I make yokes and 
ploughs and ox-goads, and oars for 
barges and ferry-boats and masts for 
ships; and in hewn stone I make tomb- 
stones and monuments and palaces of 
kings." And the king said, "Build 
me a palace." And Thomas set forth 
on the sand the ground plan of a 
palace. There were doors to the east 
for light, and windows to the west for 
air ; and he put the bakehouse to the 
south, and water-pipes to the north. 
And the king said, "Verily it is a 
good palace," and gave him money for 
the building, and went forth on a far West Front of Exeter Cathedral, 
journey. But when he returned, lo ! 

there was no palace, for Thomas had spent the king's money on 
the poor. But the king was wroth and ordered Thomas to death on 
the next day. Now the king's brother had died. But in the night 
the soul was restored to his body, and he returned to the king, and 
told the things that had happened on his passing, and that he had 
seen heaven and the mansions thereof, and among them was a great 
and glorious palace, and that it had been built for the king by 


S. Thomas. 


w. s. w. 

S. Anne. 

Thomas, his architect. So the king 
forgave Thomas and was baptized. 1 

The apocryphal Acts report 
that S. Thomas was stabbed to 
death at Mazdai in Persia. He 
is represented in Art holding a 
spear or an arrow, or, more 
frequently, with a carpenter's 
rule. S. Thomas is the patron 
saint of Portugal and of Parma. 

S. Anne (41 Dedications] 

It was from the apocryphal 
gospel of James that the names 
Joachim and Anne were obtain- 
ed as the parents of the Blessed 
Virgin. S. Anne was exceed- 
ingly popular in later Gothic 
days ; she is often depicted 
teaching Our Lady to read. 
After 1530 there, passed a 
hundred and fifty years without 
any dedication to S. Anne. But 
in the later days of the seven- 
teenth century many churches 
were dedicated to her, with one 
eye to the good mother of Our 
Lady and the other to " Good 
Queen Anne." For some reason 
S. Anne is a patron of wells, 
<?.-., at Buxton, Malvern, and 
Nottingham. 2 

S. James the Less 
(26 Dedications] 

The title of S. James the 
Less gives an impression of the 

1 In the west front of Exeter 
cathedral S. Thomas bears a model 
of his palace (57). On the Ran worth 
screen he carries the spear by which 
he was slain (56). 

3 Arnold- Fprster, i. 99. 



apostle which is the exact reverse of the truth: in reality 
S, James was by far the more important, being a near relative, 
o&X<<fe, of Our Lord, and president of the first General Council 
of the Church. S. Philip and S. James the Less happen to 
share one feast day between them. The latter had met 
martyrdom in the East, and his relics were brought to 
Constantinople and afterwards to Rome, where they were 
placed in a reliquary which already contained some relics of 

SS. Christopher and Anne. 

S. James the Less. A church was built to contain this reliquary, 
and was dedicated to SS. Philip and James on the ist of May, 
A.D. 560, which ever since has been the joint festival of the two 
saints in the Western Church. 1 In the Eastern Church S. Philip's 

1 On the Ran worth screen S. Philip carries a basket of loaves (61). 
On, the rood-screen at Cawston, Norfolk, he holds a staff in one hand and 
a closed book in the other (62). In the stall-panels at Blythburgh he holds 
the Tau cross on which he was said to have been crucified (63). 




S. James the Less. 
Ranworth Rood-screen. 

Day is I4th November, and S. James 3 
Day loth April. 1 

All Souls (4 Dedications) \ 

This dedication is of late date, being 
due to a monk of Cluny, who in 998 
visited Sicily and Mount Etna, and 
being drowsy, fell asleep on the warm 
mountain side, and there had a vision 
wherein he saw the devil rebuking 
his aides-de-camp, Belial, Mephistopheles, 
Beelzebub, Asmodeus, and the rest, for 
letting so many Christian souls escape 
-their clutches. They urged in reply 
the great interference they experienced 
from the new order of Cluniacs. These 
things became common talk in Cluny 
and throughout Christendom, and a 
special day, the 2nd of November, was 
appointed when prayers should be made 
for the release of souls from purgatory ; 
an Act to that effect was passed by 
the English Parliament. A college at 
Oxford, dedicated to All Souls, was 
founded by Archbishop Chichele, under 
the influence of Henry VI., and the 
fellows were enjoined by its statutes to 
pray for the souls of those who had 
fallen in the wars of Henry V. 2 

All Saints or All Hallows 

The origin of this festival is a little 
unusual. In the year 73 1 Pope Gregory 
III. added a new chapel to Old S. 
Peter's, Rome ; and dedicated it to All 
Saints. The dedication took place on 
1st November, which has been set apart 
for the commemoration of All Saints 
ever since. The form All Hallows 
is more common than All Saints in 
ancient dedications. 

1 Charles Browne, Ibid^ 284. 

2 Charles Browne, Ibid.^ 285. 


Rood-screen, Ranworth, Norfolk. 


S. Matthias. 
Cawston Rood-screen. 







S. Petronilla 

To her probably is dedicated Whipstead church, Suffolk. 
Her name was taken to mean " Peter's little daughter," and out 
of this "diseased etymology" there grew up curious and 
interesting legends, which are discussed at length in Bishop 
Lightfoot's Clement of Rome, vol. i., and in Miss Arnold- 
Forster's Studies iu Dedications, i. 100, to which also the student 
is referred for an account of the other Biblical saints to whom 
churches are dedicated. 


Reasons for Selection of a Patron Saint S. Andrew S. Pancras of Rome 
SS. George and Denys Four Crowned Martyrs Monastic Connections 
Benedictine Influence Dedications to Missioners S. German 
Private Reasonsfor Dedications Cluster- Dedications Mother Churches 
in City of London. 

ALTOGETHER there are some 370 saints to whom English 
churches or chapelries are or have been dedicated. Of these 
23 are mentioned in the Bible. This leaves a vast multitude 
of non-Biblical saints. But from these we must separate, 
as 'has been pointed out above, a very large number of saints, 
especially in Wales and Cornwall, who were really not saints 
at all. Even with this further deduction there was a great crowd 
of non-Biblical saints for the mediaeval Christian to choose 
from. One would like to know what decided his choice. Some 
of these saints seem to modern eyes to be honoured quite 
beyond their merits, and others just as certainly not to have 
won their just meed of praise. Why should such persons as 
S. Nicholas, S. Margaret, S. Leonard, S. Giles be so high up the 
tree? Why should S. Mark, an evangelist, and one whose 
memorials are to be seen in every nook and corner of the 
Venetian empire, have but a paltry half-dozen churches in 
England, while S. Nicholas has 437? Why should S. Michael 
have 687 dedications, while S. Gabriel, the angel of the 
Annunciation, has but 6, and S. Raphael and S. Uriel none at 
all ? Nearly every name suggests a query and calls forth a 
remonstrance. Probably we shall never get to the bottom of the 
matter ; the mediaeval mind is often very curious in its workings, 
and now only too often incomprehensible. 

But there are some reasons which may be detected for the 
mediaeval churchman's likes and dislikes. For instance, many 
dedications are plainly due to knowledge 'of ecclesiastical pro- 
cedure on the Continent, or to visits to holy places outside 
England. We have seen that the churches at Rochester and 
Hexham were not merely dedications to S. Andrew, but probably 
also loving reminiscences of the monastery of S. Andrew at 
Rome. But this monastery was built on land that had belonged 



to the boy-saint, S. Pancras. So when S. Augustine dedicated 
to S. Pancras the very first English church he had consecrated 
its foundations and some parts of the walls have lately been 
brought to light 1 -he doubtless had in his mind the monastery 
on the Cadian Hill which so long had been his happy home. 
Manchester cathedral is dedicated to " the Blessed Virgin Mary, 
SS. George and Denys." Randle Holme, a Lancashire anti- 
quarian, who wrote in 1652, tells us that this is because the 
church was made collegiate in 1433 by Thomas de la Warre, 
who attached to it the names of the champions of England and 
France, because he was himself half an Englishman, half a 
Frenchman. Certainly no one would have dedicated the 
Canterbury church, now gone, to "the Four Crowned Martyrs," 
unless he had personal knowledge of some church at Rome 
dedicated to the "Quattuor Incoronati," four craftsmen who 
were beheaded by Diocletian because they would not sacrifice to 
^sculapius. 2 

Geography also had something to say to the choice of a 
dedication. Thus S. Nicholas, being patron of ships and sailors, 
was of more avail in maritime countries and towns ; e.g., Brighton, 
Harwich, Liverpool, Lynn, Newcastle, Yarmouth ; the inland 
county of Derbyshire has not a single church, and only one 
chapel dedicated to him. 8 Again, it was common for churches 
and chapels on eminences to be dedicated to S. Michael, e.g., 
Abbotsbury, Dorset, and S. Michael's church on the Tor above 
Glastonbury, where on the tower all that remains is a statue 
of S. Michael with the scales, weighing souls. 

Sometimes the association of a dedication is with a neigh- 
bouring monastery. Thus Glastonbury monks of the Benedictine 
abbey dedicated one of the parish churches of the town to S. 
Benedict, the founder of their order. And when the church of 
S. Mary, Spalding, passed into the possession of S. Nicholas's 
abbey at Angers, it was re-dedicated to "SS. Mary and Nicholas." 
Again, the parish church of Ashton-under-Hill in Gloucestershire 
is dedicated to S. Barbara ; it is her only church in England. 
This village is, however, connected ecclesiastically with the 
neighbouring village of Beckford, and in Beckford there used 
to be a cell of the Augustinian house of "SS. Martin and 
Barbara " in Normandy. 

1 See Arch&ologia Cantiana, vol. 25. 

2 There is still at Rome a large church so dedicated ; it comprises 
portions built in 626, three years after the Canterbury church was burnt down. 

3 At Condicote, Gloucester, the church is dedicated to S. Nicholas, and 
the villagers are known as "Condicote Sailors." H . B. W. 


In not a few instances we may trace the frequent occurrence 
of a dedication to services rendered to the Benedictines in the 
establishment of their order in England. In the seventh 
century an East Anglian abbot, who had been much on the 
Continent, introduced the new and rigid discipline of the Black 
Monks. It is certain that Ceolfrith, one of the disciples of 
S. Wilfrid, visited Botolph in 670 with the express purpose 
of being instructed in the Benedictine Rule. Dedications to 
S. Botolph number no less than 64. S. Oswald of Worcester, 
A.D. 992, was also devoted to the propagation of Benedictine 
influence ; even more thoroughly than Dunstan, he carried into 
practice the substitution of monks for secular canons; the 
founding and oversight of monasteries were his special delight. 
In Dunstan, at once Archbishop of Canterbury and Prime 
Minister of England in the tenth century, the Benedictines had 
a most constant and powerful friend. All sorts of stories, among 
others that of the talking crucifix, were invented to show his 
indignation with the secular clergy, whose lives certainly at that 
time ill bore comparison with those who lived after the strict 
Benedictine Rule. Dunstan is commemorated with 20 dedica- 
tions, chiefly in the South of England. In painted glass in the 
Bodleian, S. Dunstan with a pair of pincers has seized a devil 
who appears to be making off with a couple of chalices. The 
saint was an expert silversmith, and at the back are seen various 
vessels of silver and gold; much of the church plate in 
Glastonbury abbey was said to have been made by Dunstan 
(26). Gervase of Canterbury speaks of him as "Sicut David 
psalterium sumens, citharam percutiens, modificans organa, 
cimbala tangens. Praeterea manu aptus ad omnia; facere 
potuit picturam, literas formare, scapello imprimere ex auro, 
argento, aere et ferro et quidlibet operari. Signa quoque et 
cimbala faciebat" (Twysden's Scriptores, x. p. 1646.} l 

Not only in Celtic districts but elsewhere a dedication may 
commemorate the visit of some famous missioner, a S. Chad, a 
S. Aidan, or a S. German. The latter was consecrated, in 418, 
Bishop of Auxerre, where the campanile, choir, and crypts of the 

1 On the screen at Great Plumstead, Norfolk, he is seizing a dragon with 
a pair of pincers, which unfortunately are mutilated (68). A boss in the 
vault of Exeter cathedral shows S. Dunstan standing and playing a large 
harp. According to William of Malmesbury, " Most of all he delighted not 
only in the practice but the science of music and in the making of musical 
instruments." It is said of him that one day he hung his harp on the wall, 
while designing some embroidery, in which also he was an expert, and as he 
sang over his work, the harp of its own accord played an accompaniment (157). 



great church of S. German still survive. Later on he was sent 
by the Gallican Church more than once to aid the British 
Church in withstanding Pelagianism. During one of these visits 


S. Benedict. 

S. Dunstan. 

the British were threatened with an attack by heathen Saxons ; 
but before German was ordained he had been a*fme soldier and 
a "dux." His tactics now were so successful thai the British 
won theTamous "Alleluia Victory." There is no doubt as to 
the reality of these visits, and doubtless some of the fifteen 


6 9 

English dedications are attached to places visited by S. German ; 
at any rate that of S, German's in Cornwall, where the tradition 
is that he landed, and where both the town and the noble 
. church preserve his name. 

S. Martin. 

S. Giles. 

In some cases the choice of dedication is due to some private 
reason, which" as a rule is nowadays irrecoverably lost. But in 
some cases we know the reason for the choice ; e.g., it was 
common for a man to put himself under the protection of the 


saint on whose day he was born ; and if he liked to found later 
a church, a chapel, a hospital, a college, to put that also under 
the same patronage. King Henry VI. was born on S. Nicholas 
Day, and dedicated his two foundations, King's College, 
Cambridge, and Eton College, to SS. Mary and Nicholas' 
Again, the lord of the manor of Rotherfield, Sussex, being 
grievously sick, had gone to the monastery of S. Denis near 
Paris, and had obtained relief. On his return in 792 he built a 
church at Rotherfield and dedicated it to S. Denis. The well- 
known antiquary, Browne Willis, in 1724 built a church at Fenny 
Stratford ; he laid the foundation stone on S. Martin's Day, and 
dedicated it to S. Martin, because his grandfather had died on 
S. Martin's Day in S. Martin's Lane. In somewhat similar fashion 
King Stephen dedicated the famous chapel which he built at 

Sometimes there is a cluster of identical dedications confined 
to one small area ; eg., to S. Denis and to S. Andrew near 
Sleaford and Folkingham in Lincolnshire, and to S. Edith in 
the Lincolnshire marsh, and S. Helen on the eastern slope of the 
Lincolnshire Wolds. It may be that rebuildings or additions 
took place simultaneously in these groups of churches, and that 
the churches after the rebuilding were re-dedicated to the favourite 
saint or the patron saint of the consecrating bishop. 1 

In a few examples, chiefly modern churches, the dedication 
is due to the fact that the younger church has assumed the 
dedication of the mother church with the aid of whose funds it 
was erected. In the City of London this is specially provided 
for by Act of Parliament ; hence such examples as S. Dionis or 
Denis, Fulham ; S. Antholin, Nunhead. 

Usually, however, churchmen had full liberty of choice as 
regards dedications to non-Biblical personages; and though their 
choice comes so often as a surprise to a modern churchman, it 
by no means follows that it was without rhyme or reason. 

1 Borlase's Age of the Saints, 67. 

W. M. D. 

S. Dunstan. 

S. Helena. 


Non-Biblical Saints Saints of Royal Blood S. Helena Anglo-Saxon 
Saints Danish Saints Edward the Confessor Anglo-Saxon Prin- 
cesses S. Hilda Early Christianity of Wales S. David The Sons 
of Brychan. 


LEAVING the saints connected with the Bible story, we turn 
to the far more numerous examples of later date. We will 
begin, as in duty bound, with saints of royal blood. 1 

It is astonishing what a swarm of kings and queens and 
princesses, with their sisters and their cousins and their aunts, 
attained to the honours of sainthood. The dedication lists 
begin nobly with an empress, S. Helena, the wife of the Roman 
emperor, Constantine. 


S. Helena has the large number of 135 dedications. 2 It is 
an honour she well deserved as a historical personage, but there 
can be little doubt that her position is rather due to the unhistoric 
legends that gathered round her. The genuine Helena is 
perfectly well known from the history of her contemporary, 
Eusebius, whose account we epitomise. According to S. Ambrose, 
who wrote but seventy years later, she was an innkeeper's daughter, 
and this was the general and received belief. One day 
Constantius, nephew of the reigning emperor, Claudius, met her, 
and in due course they were married. For twenty years they 
had a happy married life. Then for State reasons a separation 
took place, which lasted till Constantius' death fourteen years 
later. Their son was the great Constantine, the first Christian 

1 In Stanton's Menology^ Appendix III., is a list of saints belonging to 
the reigning houses of the various kingdoms in England, from the time of 
S. Augustine. 

2 There is an excellent article on the Empress Helena by Bishop John 
Wordsworth in Smith and Wace's Dictionary of Christian Biography, sub 
wee ; see also Arnold- Forster, Ibid.) i. 181. 


emperor. His love, respect, and honour of his mother were 
remarkable, both during the separation from Constantius and after 
he came to the imperial throne. In 312 Helena joined her son 
in allegiance to Christianity ; though not hitherto a worshipper of 
the True God, so good and sweet was her nature that "she 
seemed from her tender years to have been taught by the 
Saviour Himself." On his accession and all the days of her life 
Constantine ever sought fresh ways to do her honour. By all 
the legions and in all the provinces she was styled Augusta and 
ImperatriX) and gold coins were stamped bearing her image ; 
also he gave her authority to use the imperial treasures as she 
would. In old age she determined to " worship In the very 
footsteps of Christ." She was nearly eighty, but " had a youthful 
spirit," says Eusebius, " and the greatest healthiness both of body 
and mind." And so she set out for Jerusalem, where she felt 
that she ought to give thanks with supplications for her son so 
glorious, the emperor, and for his sons, the Caesars, her grand- 
children. Constantine had put at her disposal the vast wealth 
of the Imperial Exchequer; and though herself plainly clad and 
living with simplicity, she "heaped innumerable benefits and 
favours both on cities and churches and on every private person 
who approached her." While in the Holy Land, she founded 
the great church of the Nativity at Bethlehem, a still standing 
memorial of her munificence. 1 Some time later " she closed her 
life, the great Emperor being present with and standing by her, 
paying all imaginable respect and embracing her hands." So 
passed one of the most noble and gracious women that 
ever stepped across the scene of history. This is the true 
Helena. 2 

The other Helena is extremely unhistoric. The first thing 
told which endeared her above everything else to all Christen- 
dom was the part she took in the discovery of the Cross while 
she was in Jerusalem, and in the dispersion of precious fragments 
of it throughout Europe. But Eusebius, who was her con- 
temporary, says not a word of this. It is inconceivable that, 
writing in such detail as he did of the empress, he should have 
omitted this momentous fact. The whole story of her connection 

1 It has been held that this church was not built till the time of Justinian, 
but later knowledge shows that it is substantially of the age of Constantine. 
See monograph on the church, published for the Byzantine Research Fund 
in 1910. 

2 In Henry the Seventh's chapel, S. Helena is reading an open book 
supported by a Tau cross (71). She also bears a cross in an alabaster table 
in the vestry of S. Peter Mancroft, Norwich (7). 



D. AND P. 

S. Ethelred. S. Ethelbert. 

West Front of Wells Cathedral. 


with the Inventio Crucis grew up later, but not much later. 
It first appears in the historian Socrates a hundred years after 
her visit to the Holy Land the divine vision which caused her 
to go on pilgrimage ; the bringing to light of three crosses ; the 
test which showed one only of the number to be endowed with 
miraculous powers of healing ; the gift to Constantine of the two 
nails, and the strange use he made of them, converting them 
into helmet and bridle ; and lastly, the ascription of the erection 
of the church of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem to Helena, 
and not to Constantine, its real founder. 

In addition to all this, an English myth grew up, and more 
than one. For these we are indebted to the chroniclers Geoffrey 
of Monmouth and Henry of Huntingdon, two of the worst liars 
in the Middle Ages. Starting with a vague tradition that the 
Emperor Constantine was born in Britain, they fill in all the 
detail. She was the daughter of 

" Old King Cole, 
That merry old soul," 

who reigned in Colchester. This the Colchester people devoutly 
believed, and in 1407 founded one of the most fashionable of the 
guilds of the Middle Ages, that of S. Helen, whose chapel was 
dedicated to the Holy Cross ; later on, the guild was converted 
into the '* Fraternity of S. Elene." But there was another 
tradition that the birth of her son Constantine took place in 
York ; whether that was so or not, he spent a considerable time in 
that city. And so the great county became interested in his 
mother, Helena ; and no less than 34 churches are dedicated to 
her in Yorkshire : one of them, indeed, S. Helen-on-the- Walls, 
York, claims to contain the grave of her husband, Constantius ; 
in Yorkshire she stands sixth in order of popularity. She was 
very popular also in the neighbouring county of Lincolnshire, 
where she stands seventh, with 28 dedications. Other interesting 
churches dedicated to her are the nuns 1 churches of Elstow 
(Helen-stow), Bedford, and S. Helens, Bishopsgate, London, and 
the parish church of S. Elena, Thoroton, Notts. 1 In Lancashire, 
she gives her name to smoky " S. Helens.' 1 To gauge her true 
position we should add to her dedications those to "Holy 
Cross " or " Holy Rood." 

At Ashton-under-Lyne, Lancashire, are eighteen panels of 
stained glass, c. 1480, which depict the life of S. Helena. The 
first depicts her birth, with the scroll, " Hie nascitur Elena Coyle 
regis filia? " Here is born Helena, daughter of King Cole." At 

1 Arnold-Forster, Ibid., \. 188. 

7 6 


Motley, Derbyshire, is another Holy Cross window in ten panels, 
brought from the refectory of Dale Abbey. 1 

From this fourth-century empress we pass to the Anglo- 
Saxon kings of the seventh and following centuries. In early 
Anglo-Saxon days political murders were so frequent that 

D. \V. 

S. Ethelbert. 
Hereford Cathedral. 

S. Edmund. 

royal saints had not long to wait for martyrdom. There are 
dedications to Edwin, first Christian king of Northumberland 
(i), defeated and slain in 633 ; to Oswald (67), his successor, 
defeated and slain in 642 ; to Oswin (i), king of Northumbria, 
murdered in 650; to Ethelbert (16), king of East Anglia, 

1 Nelson's Painted Glass, 70, 131. 


assassinated in 794 by Offa, king of the Mercians ; Hereford 
cathedral is dedicated to Ethelbert ; l to Alkmund (4), the boy- 

j. H. P. 

S. Edward the Confessor granting a Charter to a Monastery. 
From painted glass in the Priory of Great Malvern. 

1 King Ethelbert was murdered, it is said, by King Offa at the instigation 
of the wife of the latter, Queen Cynethryth, on whom he is seen trampling 
in the west front of Wells cathedral (74). The small statue of S. Ethelbert 
shown on page 76 was dug up about the year 1700 at the entrance to the 
Lady chapel of Hereford cathedral. 


king of Northumbria, murdered in 800 by Hardulph, as well as 
to Hardulph (i), his murderer ;' to Edmund (61), king of East 
Angiia; murdered by the Danes in 870; Bury S. Edmund 
commemorates his name. To these add three boy-kings, all 
foully murdered ; Kenelm of Mercia (9), murdered at the 
instance of his sister in 819; Wyston or Winston of Mercia (3), 
assassinated by order of his uncle in 
849, and Edward, king of the West 
Saxons (5), murdered at Corfe Gate in 
979. Next we have a Scandinavian 
king, Olaf or Olave (13), whose mis- 
sionary message was the simple one, 
" Be baptized or be killed " ; he fell in 
1030. Then comes a somewhat un- 
kingly king, Edward the Confessor (17), 
who died in his bed in 1066. Abnormal 
both In body and mind, he was almost 
an albino, and was subject to strange 
trances, and "saw visions," and was 
devoted to every observance of religion ; 
on the one hand he was looked at with 
superstitious reverence, on the other 
hand he was regarded with that curious 
mixture of feelings, more pity than con- 
tempt, that country people still have for 
an " innocent" He was, moreover, the 
last on the long roll of the old dynasty 
of Anglo-Saxon kings. For a long 
time he was practically the patron saint 
of England, till Edward III. converted 
S. Edward's chapel at Windsor into 
S. George's chapel, and formally con- 
stituted S. George England's patron 
saint 1 Richard II. does not appear 
in dedications; nor do Edward II. or 
Henry VI.,. though both were held in 
great reverence. It was not till -1649 
. that England provided itself with 
another kingly saint and the last, King Charles the Martyr. 

D. \V. 

The Confessor. 

^ * On a tile in the Westminster Chapter house the king is shown giving 
his ring to a beggar (173). He is represented on the grille of Henry the 
Seventh's chapel, but the ring is missing (78). Similar is the representation 
on the tomb of Henry the Se venth (i 17), In glass at Malvern he is giving 
a charter to a kneeling monk (77). 



When from kings we 
turn to saintly queens and 
saintly princesses, they 
abound amazingly. Both 
in the Celtic and in the 
Anglo-Saxon Church this 
was so. Thus " in the East 
Anglian royal family there 
were three sainted sisters 
S. Etheldreda of Ely, S. 
Sexburga, and S. With- 
burga. 1 These sisters again 
are connected with many 
another .royal saint The 
Northumbrian abbess Hilda 
is their maternal aunt ; the 
Mercian saints, Werburgh 
and Milburgh, are their 
nieces; Etheldreda is allied 
by marriage with the Wes- 
sex princess, S. Cuthburga ; 
while S. Sexburga's mar- 
riage with Ercombert, king 
of Kent, brings her into 
kinship with all the saints of 
the Kentish royal family." 2 
And there are many others, 
some of high family, and 
some of royal blood, such 
as S. Frideswide, 3 S. Pega, 
S. Sidwell, S. Alkelda, S. 

1 On page 20 S. Etheldreda 
is represented as a crowned 
abbess. On the ground lie the 
crown and sceptre she resigned 
in order to take up conventual 

2 Arnold - Forster, Ibid.) ii. 


3 In Oxford cathedral S. 
Frideswide is depicted in four- 
teenth-century glass, crowned, 
bearing a sceptre in her left 
hand and a closed book in her 
right (18). 

S. Etheldreda. 
Ranworth Rood-screen. 


Eadburga of Pershore, S. Eanswith, 1 S. Edith of Polesworth, 
S. Wolfrida, and that charming girl, S. Edith of Wilton. Of 
royal ladies there are some twenty-five to whom Anglo- 
Saxon churches are dedicated ; and of these three only have 
the title of martyr ; S. Alkelda, S. Arilda, and S. Osyth. How 
then are their posthumous honours to be accounted for? It is 
not to be attributed to chivalry, for the glamour of chivalry 
had not yet come in with the Normans, with whom no form of 
obeisance to woman could be too reverential, while all the time 
she was to them but a pretty toy. There never was a time in ' 
the history of England when women were given such full scope 
for the power which many possess in an exceptional degree, of 
organisation and administration, as in Anglo-Saxon days. The 
Anglo-Saxon ladies were strenuous and capable both in Church 
and State; in the foundation of their institutions and in the 
government of them displaying judgment, tact, and ability. Of 
S. Hilda Bede says, u Such was her wisdom, that not only all 
common people in their necessities, but even sometimes kings 
and princes sought counsel of her." The monastery at Whitby 
was in fact the great theological college of all England ; among 
Hilda's pupils were five bishops ; one of them was S. John of 
Beverley. The Church acknowledged such good service by the 
highest honour it could confer. Then one must remember how 
new Christianity was in the seventh and eighth centuries ; the 
story of the conversion of the English kingdoms was fresh in 
all minds and .was on all lips ; and to the personages in the 
story, the king who had brought Christianity into his realm, the 
queen who had converted a heathen husband, the princess who 
had founded the first convent, to all these the Anglo-Saxon 
world was full of gratitude and praise. 

Earlier still, in the Celtic Church, royalty is equally con- 
spicuous in the calendar of saints. There again few won their 
way to sainthood by the bloodstained path of martyrdom. 
After the departure of the last Roman soldier in 407, life in 
England had been one long horror up to the Settlement in the 
seventh or eighth century ; every fragment of Roman civilisa- 
tion, and practically every trace of the British Church, had been 
obliterated on English soil. In the words of the petition of the 
British Christians to Rome in 446 : " The barbarians drive us to 
the sea, the sea to the barbarians ; we are massacred or we are 

1 On an ivory in the British Museum S. Eanswith is seen standing on a 
sturgeon. To the right are the Blessed Virgin and S. Peter. At 
Folkestone S. Eanswith is shown on the Corporation seal with two fishes 
on a half hoop ; and on the Mayor's seal with a fish on each side of her. 



drowned," Wales, on the other hand, was for the most part a 
quiet and peaceful land in those days ; the last half of the fifth 

S, Eanswith. The Virgin and Child. S, Peter, 
Ivory Panel in British Museum. 

and the beginning of the sixth century, just when things were 
about at their worst in England, was almost a Golden Age 


Rood-screen, Ran worth, Norfolk. 


there ; and it was at this time that the greatest church work of 
Wales was clone. Christianity was the settled religion of the 
country ; organised in a very curious way, not at all after the 
episcopal fashion which ultimately prevailed in England, and 
which later was forced on Wales, but directed by the heads of 
monasteries. Now it is that S. David and his associates worked ; 
some of them of noble or royal blood ; also that extraordinary 
royal family in Brecknockshire, which goes by the name of the 
" Sons of Brychan," who, according to Welsh tradition, were 
forty-nine in number, while the Cornish lists reckon over 
seventy. To them are to be added eight minor royalties ; and 
that by no means exhausts the list. 1 

1 For the literature on Celtic Saints see the Bibliography prefixed to the 


Dedications to Evangelists, Divines, and Theologians SS. Ignatius and 
Polycarp Dedications to Saints of Pious and Austere Life S. Chad 
S. Cuthbert S. Botolph S. Guthlac. 

TURNING to more general considerations, we note in the 
dedications of English churches the comparative indifference 
shown to scriptural learning and theological literature. S. Paul 
gets little credit for his epistles. The apostle S. John, with 
Gospel and Apocalypse to his credit, is far below his name- 
sake, the Baptist, in popularity. None of the evangelists, 
S. Matthew 1 (33 dedications), S. Mark (6 dedications), S, Luke 
(8 dedications), S. John (181 dedications), stand high on the list. 

,As for the Faithers^ of the., Church, the great jQ^or^ajad 
JheolQgians, who formulated, defended, and promulgated that 

' body of doctrine which is the life-blood of the Church's teaching, to 
most of them those who dedicated the churches were indifferent. 
S.Jgnajtius had personal knowledge of the apostles, and passed 
tEe tradition on to S. Polycarp. The former suffered martyrdom 
at Rome, c. no : " I am ground/' he said, ' by the teeth of wild 
beasts that I may be found pure bread of Christ." Polycarp 
also had known the aged apostle John, and was wont to describe 
his intercourse with the " beloved disciple " and with others who 
had seen Our Lord, and would repeat their words. He suffered 
martyrdom at the stake in 168. Yet we have no ancient church 
dedicated either to Ignatius or to Polycarp. Nor is there one 
to S. Cyprian of Carthage, to S. Chrysostom of Constantinople, 
or to the great S. Ambrose of Milan. 2 Those who built our 
churches cared little for those who wrote the Scriptures, and for 

popularity of S. Matthew is probably largely due to the story of 
his^imprisonment and rescue in the City of Dogs (page 154). 

2 On the rood-screen at Ashton, Devon, S. Ambrose is represented as a 
bishop with crozier and closed book (267). In another representation he is 
rebuking the emperor ; behind him is a hive, because as a child, bees, the 
symbol of eloquence, had settled on his lips, as on Plato's (24). In Henry 
the Seventh's chapel, S. Ambrose holds an open book in one hand, and in 
the other a broken scourge or "discipline" (85). 

w. s. w. 

w. s. w. 

S. Ambrose. 

S. Antony. 


those who interpreted the Scriptures still less. The reason is 
not far to seek. Nowadays we print Bibles by the million ; 
everybody can have a whole Bible for a few pence. But in the 
old days hardly anybody had a Bible, and practically nobody 
could read, Moreover, in the services it was not the custom to 
read great blocks of Scripture, any more than it is now in 
Catholic churches ; it was only a few selected verses here and 
there that people were familiar with. And if the Bible was but 
an empty name to them, they were still less likely to have on 
their shelves the voluminous works of the Fathers. 

Our forefathers had no particular respect for a man sitting at 
a desk ; they liked to see him doing something ; the strenuous, 
active life was their ideal, not the contemplative peacefulness of 
the scholar recluse. They liked to see their saint riding about 
slaying dragons and rescuing chained maidens, like S. George, 
or, clad in shining armour like S. James, charging down the 

On the other hand, it is very clear that simple saintliness was 
held in the very highest regard. Holiness of life canonised 
many a good man and woman. Many a pretty story survives 
to teH us how affecting was the spectacle of a life of innocence 
and piety. When S. Chad was dying, one of his chaplains heard 
a sweet melody of singing, which descended from heaven into 
the saint's oratory, and filled the same for about half an hour, 
and then rose again to heaven. Nor could any life well be less 
eventful than that "of S. John of Beverley-^-a life of study and 
teaching, of missioning and healing, and a final three years of 
prayer in his dear refuge at Beverley. Of Edward the Confessor, 
William of Malmesbury says, "He was a man devoted to God, 
and God directed his simplicity." 

But the world liked outward and visible signs of the holy 
life ; it^ looked for austerities, asceticism. The hermit and the 
anchorite were older personages than monk and nun, and kept 
firm hold of the popular imagination. All over Christendom 
and from the earliest times this was so. It is a far cry from 
England to the deserts of Egypt and Sinai, where S. Antony 
had his abode till his death in extreme old age in 356, unfriended 
save by a wild boar ; l but the mediaeval world did not forget him 

1 On the screen at Ashton, Devon, S. Antony holds a Tau staff, and 
probably had a bell; at his feet is a wild boar (141). In an illumination he is 
shown with book and bell, Tau crosses, and pig (13). He appears with 
rosary and pig on the tomb of Henry the Seventh at Westminster (153). In 
a statue in Henry the Seventh's chapel he has a rosary, sheath-knife, and 
Tau staff; in his right hand is a bell below is a pig (85). 

D. W. 

S. Cuthbert. S. Eloy. 

Henry the Seventh's , 'Chapel, Westminster. 



S. Oswald 

Wells; Cathedral. 


8 9 

or S. Simeon Stylites, and many another who fought and sub- 
dued the temptations of the world, .the flesh, and the devil. 
Another saint, with many churches, was S. Leonard (177 dedica- 
tions), who from being courtier to King Clovis turned hermit. 
Another famous hermit and abbot \vasS. Giles (162 dedications), 
of very uncertain date but with 
many churches. S. Jerome was 
more respected as an anchorite 
than as a theologian. It is as 
a fierce, half-naked, old hermit, 
beating his breast with a stone, 
that he is most often repre- 
sented in later Italian art - 

Of S. Cuthbert (72 dedi- 
cations) we have detailed ac- 
counts from his contemporary, 
Bede, in the seventh century. 
Me was a shepherd lad, keeping 
his master's flocks in Lauder- 
dale; athletic and brave, a good 
horseman and a good fighter. 
But one night when saying his 
prayers, he saw in the dark sky 
a track of light, down which 
descended holy angels, and 
presently returned bringing 
back from earth a resplendent 
soul. Next morning he heard 
that Aidan, Bishop of Lindis- 
farne, the Evangeliser of 
Northern England, had died 
in the night. So Cuthbert, 
then fifteen, joined the monks 
of Melrose. Then for many 
years he went forth as a 
missioner among the savage 
Border folk, traversing to and p. N. 
fro the wild country from S. Cuthbert. 

Solway to Forth, passing 

weeks and even months away from Melrose, preaching, adminis- 
tering the .sacraments, and practising extraordinary auster- 
ities ; stone bathing-places, where, as was the wont with 
Celtic saints, he would lie all night in freezing water engaged 
in prayer, are still shown here and there in the country- 
. side. Then for twelve years he was prior of Lindisfarne; 


when at home observing the harshest discipline, three nights out 
of four singing the praises of God as he paced the aisles ; and 
again continuing his labours in Northumbria, preaching, healing 
the sick, confessing, and communicating. Then, when nearly 
forty, he left Lindisfarne for a rocky islet opposite Bamburgh, 
hollowing a cell out of the rock, and building round it a mound 
so high that he could see " nothing but Heaven to which he so 
earnestly aspired." To Fame came the faithful, humble and 
great, from all Northumbria to make confession and receive his 
blessing. For two years he was dragged away from his cell to 
be Bishop of Lindisfarne, missioning once more all over the 
countryside from Lindisfarne to Carlisle, preaching, confirming, 
confessing, healing the sick and halt, penetrating remote dales, 
crossing pathless fells, living in the open or under a shelter ojf 
branches of trees. After Christmas, 686, he returned to his 
beloved Fame, to make preparation for his passing, and two 
months later was buried at the foot of the cross which he had set 
up. " I would fain rest," he said, " where I have fought my 
little battle for the Lord, from whence I hope my merciful 
Judge will call me to a crown of righteousness. Bury me, 
wrapped in the linen which I have kept for my shroud out of 
love for the abbess Verca, the friend of God, who gave it me." l 

At the south end of the choir transept of York minster is a 
vast window which retains 85 panels of ancient glass. In it are 
depicted (i) His childhood, boyhood, and youth ; (2) his 
monastic life at Melrose, Ripon, and Lindisfarne ; (3) his retire- 
ment to Fame Island ; (4) his life as Bishop of Lindisfarne ; (5) 
his second retirement and death at Lindisfarne ; (6) his shrine 
and posthumous miracles. 2 

Then there was S. Botolph, who dwelt in a dismal hut amidst 
the swamps of the fenland rivers, and in the East of England has 
no less than 64 dedications, but only a single one in the West 
country ; he flourished in the seventh century, and is credited 
with being one of the pioneers in England of the Benedictine 
Rule, which, however, did not come into predominance till the 
time of Archbishop Dunstan three centuries later. 

In the eighth century there was his successor, S. Guthlac, 3 
with 9 dedications, who abode in the swamps of Crowland 
summer and winter, amid snow and mire, flood and ice, ague and 

1 Baring-Gould's Lives of the Saints^ aoth March. 

2 Nelson's Painted Glass, 257. 

3 In the Harley Roll Y 6 in the British Museum are eighteen pictures of 
the life of S. Guthlac. In the illustration S. Guthlac is chastising a devil 
with a scourge or "discipline" (26). 


rheumatism, wearing himself out with impossible fasts, till his 
poor brain gave way, taking the will o' wisps of the marsh for 
tapers of dancing witches, and " the myriad shriek of wheeling 
waterfowl " for howls of witches and devils, who had great heads 
and crooked nebs and fierce eyes, and cried hoarsely with their 
voices, and came with immoderate noise and horror and tugged 
him from his cot, and led him to the black fen and sunk him in 
the muddy waters ; after which they brought him into thick 
beds of brambles that all his body was torn ; and they beat him 
with iron whips, and after that brought him on their creaking 
wings athwart the cold regions of the air. 1 After his death 
there rose above his bones, on piles driven into the mud, the 
abbey church of Crowland, whereof the north aisle and western 
steeple still survive, and which, with its dykes and parks and 
vineyards and orchards and rich ploughlands, fed in time of 
famine all the fenland folk, and whose tower was a sanctuary 
for them that fled from slavery and wrong, for between " the 
four rivers " of Crowland, S. Guthlac and his abbot were the only 
lords. S. Guthlac's life is recorded by Felix of Crowland, a 
contemporary. Many a saint, e.g., S. Martin of Tours and 
S. Cuthbert, though not a professed hermit, led lives of as 
stern asceticism as any of them. 

1 Raring- Gould, nth April, and Kingsley's Hermits. 


Dedications to the Evangelisers of Western Europe, Scotland, Wales, and 
Ireland S. Martin of Tours S. German S. Ninian S. David S. 
Patrick S. Remi S. Bridget S. Brandan S. Wulfram-S. Boniface. 

ESPECIALLY did the Church turn with grateful eyes to those 
who brought into the shadow of darkness the glad tidings of the 
gospel of peace. Among them was S. Martin of Tours (173 
dedications), who in the last half of the fourth century did so 
much to Christianise the villagers of Western France, who 
remained sunk in heathendom long after the towns had accepted 
the new religion. The life of the saint was written about AJ). 
392 by Sulpicius Severus, some years before S. Martin's death. 
He was a tribune or colonel in a Roman cavalry regiment 
quartered in Amiens in the year 332. It was a winter so 
exceedingly severe that men died of cold in the streets. One day 
S. Martin, riding out of the town, met a naked beggar, and with 
his sword divided his cloak in half, giving one half to the beggar. 1 
That same night he saw in a dream the Lord Jesus, having 
on His shoulders the half of the cloak which had been bestowed 
on the beggar. Then said He, " Thus hath my servant Martin 
arrayed me, though yet unbaptized." In his twenty-third year 
he was baptized, and in 371 was elected Bishop of Tours. One 
day in his cathedral he saw a poor beggar 

"Then Martin bade his archdeacon straightway 
That he should without delay clothe the poor man. 
But the archdeacon would not clothe the poor man ; 
And the poor man stole in to Martin, 
And bemoaned to him that he was very cold. 
Then Martin immediately unclothed himself 
Under his chasuble secretly, and put his own raiment 
On the poor man, and bade him go out. 
Then after a little space the archdeacon came, 
And said that it was time that he should go into church 
To say mass for the people and to do honour to God. 
Then Martin said to him that 'he could not go 
Into the church before the poor man was clothed. 

1 This is the scene portrayed in Vandyck's famous picture at Windsor. 


S. Martin. S. ArmeL 

Henry the Seventh's Chapel, Westminster. 


Then the archdeacon, being angry, went 

And brought a garment impatiently to him, 

Mean and little, bought at little cost, 

And with great ire laid it at his feet and said : 

' Here is the garment, but here is no poor man.' 

Then the holy man bade him wait outside somewhile, 

Desiring that he should not know that he was naked ; 

Then he clothed himself with the mean garment, 

And went to church and at once said mass, 

At that very same mass three of the monks 

And one of the priests and one of the nuns saw 

Above Martin's head as it were a burning globe 

So that the flame drew the hair far up." l 

The -devil was scandalised at the indiscriminate lavishness of 
S. Martin's charity. But the saint replied, " O most miserable 
one ! if thou also couldest repent, thou also shouldest find mercy 
through Jesus Christ/ 7 Innumerable are the stories told of 
S. Martin, and greatly to his credit. He was a furious rooter 
up of Paganism, its temples and its idols ; nor was he to be 
deterred by impersonations of Jupiter, Minerva, Mercury, or even 
a Venus rising from the foam of the sea. But there is not room 
to allude to a tithe of the pleasant stories told about him, which 
made him, next to S. Nicholas, the best liked saint of Western 
Christendom. The west window of S. Martin's church, York, has 
a figure of him in the central light; there are also thirteen 
panels depicting incidents in his life; the window was begun 
in 1437.2 

Nearly all the painted glass in S. Mary, Shrewsbury, is 
Flemish or German ; some of it from the church of S. Jaques, 
Liege. At the feet of S. Martin are the three geese. It was 
customary to kill and eat a goose at Martinmas in memory of 
the geese which the saint scolded and banished because of the 
mischief they did (95). 

There was S. German of Auxerre, who more than once in the 
early years of the fifth century ventured into Britain, leaving 
memorials of his 'successful campaign against the heresy of the 
British theologian, Pelagius, in the shape of 15 dedications. 

1 Mlfric's Homily, XXXI. 900, 

2 At Westminster a cripple holds up his bowl for alms to S, Martin, who 
is represented as a bishop (93). In another statue he wears the cloak which 
he divided with a beggar ; underneath is armour to show that he had been 
a soldier ; and he carries a mitre to show that he became a bishop. The 
omission of the horse and beggar is no doubt due to want of space (162), 
On the screen at Great Plumstead, Norfolk, he holds his crosier in his left 
hand, and an open book in his right (69). 


W, M. D. 

S. Martin* 

The Blessed Virgin. 
Gresford Church, Denbigh. 

The Magi. 

9 6 


There is S. Ninian, with 4 dedications, the "Apostle of the 
Picts"; 1 a wealthy British nobleman, who on his conversion 
went to Rome for theological training, and on his return built 

what in those days was a 
great achievement a church 
of stone ; this he called 
Whitherne, "Casa Candida," 
perhaps because it was white- 
washed, as was old York 
minster; this was in A.D. 432. 
This church he dedicated to 
S. Martin of Tours ; this is 
the very first recorded church 
dedication in Britain. Ninian 
evangelised Galloway and 
the neighbouring districts. 
In Prince Arthur's chantry 
chapel in Worcester cathedral 
is a statuette holding a heavy 
chain. This representation 
also occurs in Mr Leighton's 
Book of Hours (see page 146), 
where the saint is in episcopal 
attire, and holds in one hand 
a crosier and in the other 
a heavy chain or perhaps 
fetters ; he was Bishop of 
Whitherne. At the foot of 
the page is an " oratio deuotis- 
sima ad Sanctum Ninianum." 

" Ave gemma confessorum 
Ave dux et doctor tnorum 
Niniane pontifex." 

" Salve sanctitatis rosa 
Mundi lampas luminosa 
Cunctis eris opifex." 

" Gaude pater pietatis 
Summae sidus honestatis 

Regnans in galwedia," etc, 

A. J. N. 

S, Ninian. 

Prince Arthur's Chapel, 
Worcester Cathedral. 

To the last half of the fifth 
and to the beginning of the 

For his life see Newman's Lives of the English Saints. 


sixth century belongs a vast host of Celtic missioners, Irish, 
Welsh, Breton, Cornish ; greatest of whom were S. David and 
S. Patrick, the Apostles and patron saints of Wales and 
Ireland. The fame of Remigius, the Apostle of the Franks 
whose great abbey church of S. Re"mi is one of the twin glories 
of Rheims crossed the Channel, and is shown forth in 6 dedi- 
cations. He it was who had baptized Clovis, king of the 
Franks, amid a magnificence of ceremonial long remembered 
in Eastern France ; his life-story may be seen carved in stone 
on the tympanum of the doorway of the north transept of 
Rheims cathedral. 

To the sixth century belong S. Bridget and S. Columba. 
Bridget was a delightful, impulsive, warm-hearted, thoughtless, 
hospitable Irish girl, but a bad housekeeper. Often when dinner- 
time arrived, Bridget had given away the milk and butter to 
passing tramps and the bacon to the dog. 

On a time came two lepers unto Bridget to ask an alms. Nought 
was there in the kitchen but one single cow; Bridget gave it to the 
lepers. But one, who was a haughty leper, said, " Never am I to be 
slighted with a single cow." Then said Bridget to the other, who was a 
lowly leper, " Stay thou here to see whether God will put anything in 
the kitchen, and let the haughty leper fare forth with his cow." Then 
came a heathen having a cow for Bridget, and she gave it to the lowly 
leper. And the two lepers fared forth to the Barrow river, and the 
river rose up against them. Through Bridget's blessing the lowly leper 
escaped and his cow; but the haughty leper and his cow fell to the 
bottom of the river and were drowned. 1 Another day she came'in wet 
through, and hung her wet cloak on a sunbeam, taking it for a clothes- 
line; and the sunbeam did not move, but remained there, "as if on 
pot-hooks," till eventide, when Bridget released it, and it hasted away to 
catch up the sun. 2 

On another occasion, waiting for her father in his chariot, she gave 
away his sword ; all she had to say in defence was that if beggars asked 
for her king and father, she would give him away also. Another day 
she came over the mountain, where there was a madman, and great 
fear seized the virgins who were with her. But quoth the madman : " I 
cannot be ungentle to thee, O nun, for thou art merciful to the poor 
and wretched. Reverence the Lord, O nun, and every one will 
reverence thee ; love the Lord, and every one will love thee ; fear the 
Lord, and every one will fear thee." Then the madman fared forth, 

1 Whitley Stokes, Three Middle- Irish Homilies on the Lives of 55. 
Patrick, Brigit, and Columba. Calcutta, 1877. 

2 The legend of the sunbeam is unfortunately rather common ; at least 
nine saints hang their cloaks on a sunbeam ; four their glows ; jau4 <one 
an axe. 



and wrought no harm upon them. 1 The chronicler shall be left to set 
forth the worth and passing of Bridget. " There hath never been," he 
says, "any one more bashful or more modest than that holy virgin ; she 
never washed her hands or her face or her feet amongst men ; she 
never looked a man in the face ; she never spoke without a blush. She 
was abstinent, innocent, generous, patient; she joyed in God's com- 
mandments ; she was steadfast, lowly, forgiving, charitable. She was a 
consecrated vessel for keeping Christ's body; she was a temple of 
God; her heart and her mind were a throne of rest for the Holy 
Ghost, Towards God she was simple; towards the wretched com- 
passionate : her miracles and wondrous deeds like the sand of the sea : 
her soul is like the sun in the heavenly city among quires of angels 
and archangels, in union with cherubim and seraphim, in union with 
all the Holy Trinity, Father and Son and Holy Ghost. I, the writer, 
beseech the Lord's mercy through S. Brigh's intercession. Amen." 

In Ireland her churches are almost numberless ; in England 
she is remembered by 19 dedications, one of which is Wren's 
church of S. Bride, Fleet Street, London. In memory of her, 
the "Fiery Dart," as she was called, the nuns of Kildare for 
700 years kept ever burning a sacred fire. 2 From Ireland too 
came S. Columba, from whose mission station at lona went 
forth the evangelisers not only of Scotland, but of Northern 
England. In Scotland he had some 50 dedications, in England 8. 

S. Brandan 3 also was an Irishman ; two English churches 
are dedicated to him. The stories about S. Brandan are only too 
good to be true. S. Brandan voyaged forth for seven years to 
an isle of the West, another Avilion 

" Where falls not hail nor rain nor any snow, 
Nor ever wind blows loudly ; but it lies 
Deep-meadow'd, happy, fair with orchard lawns 
And bowery hollows crown'd with summer sea." 

"And it was a very fair land, standing thick with flowers; and hard 
by a noble well stood a spreading tree, whose every bough was laden 
with fair white birds so that the leaves might scarce be seen ; and they 
sang so merrily that it was a heavenly noise to hear. Then the saint 
bade tell wherefore they sang so merrily ; and one made answer : 

1 Whiiley Stokes, Ibid., 77. The homily of S. Brigit is from a manu- 
script of the fifteenth century preserved in the library of the Royal Irish 
Academy, and evidently incorporates very ancient materials. 

2 She is not to be confounded with S. Bridget of Sweden, who founded 
the order of the Briggittines, and is represented with a pilgrim's wallet 
and staff. 

3 An English version in prose and verse of the legend of S, Brandan has 
been edited by Mr Thomas Wright for the Percy Society. 


* Sometime^we were angels in heaven ; but when Lucifer our master fell 
through pride, we fell with him ; but since our trespass is but little, our 
Lord hath set us here out of all pain, to serve Him, and to praise Him 
on this tree in the best manner that we can.' And yearly, at the Easter 
tide, S. Erandan and his companions returned to keep the holy season 
in the Paradise of Birds." l 

It was on one of these voyages that S. Brandan met Judas 
Iscariot, who, for a brief space of respite from eternal woe, floats 
past on an iceberg. One act of kindness, Judas told S. Brandan, 
one only had he done in his lifetime ; and 

" That germ of kindness, in the womb 
Of mercy caught, did not expire ; 
Outlives my guilt, outlives my doom, 
And friends me in the pit of fire." 

From every story of this far-away, mystical Irish saint there 
shines forth a real soul, one that ever preached a gospel of pity 
and forgiveness and long-suffering and love ; and that the Lord 
is full of compassion and mercy, and forgiveth sins, and saveth 
in time of affliction. Brandan and Bridget were lovely in their 
lives ; if anything, still more beautiful is the story of the great 
Columba ; here only a passing reference can be made to it If 
Columba, Brandan, and Bridget are typical examples of what 
Christianity was in Ireland before the English missioners and 
soldiers arrived, Celtic Ireland must have been an Island of 
Saints. And indeed it was. Saints they had in such abundance 
that they were exported in large numbers for Continental use. 
Irish religion was a religion of simple piety and love. 

Here is another story setting forth mercy and loving-kindness. 
" It is taken from some ascetical work, the title of which," says 
Count Joseph de Maistre, " I forget." 

A saint, whose name I have also forgotten, had a vision in which he 
saw Satan standing before the throne of God. And the Evil one said, 
" Why hast thou damned me, who offended but once, and hast saved 
thousands who have offended many times against Thee?" And God 
said, "Hast Thou asked for pardon once?" For forgiveness is not 
denied but to them that ask not 2 

44 The mercy of man is upon his neighbour, 
But the mercy of the Lord is upon all flesh ; 
Reproving, and chastening, and teaching, 
And bringing again, as a shepherd his flock." 

1 Arnold-Forster, Ibid.> ii. 37. 

2 Count Joseph de Maistre, Lettres, etc., i. 253, quoted in Delehaye, 
Ibid.) 231. 


To the eighth century belongs the mission of S. Wulfram, 
Archbishop of Sens, to Friesland. It was S. Wulfram who was 
baptizing King Radbod, when the old king suddenly asked, " But 
what of my ancestors?" "Those who died unbaptized are 
assuredly damned," was the stern reply. "Then," said King 
Radbod, stepping out of the water, " I cannot give up the 
companionship of my ancestors." S. Wulfram died c. 720 ; he 
has two dedications, Dorrington and Grantham. The next and 
the greatest evangelist of the century, and in Europe, was a 
wealthy young Devonshire man, Wilfred of Crediton, who gave 
up his monastic life at Nutshalling or Nursling, in Hampshire, 
and went as a missionary to Friesland, there continuing S. 
Wulfram's work. After work here, and in Bavaria and Saxony, 
he was raised to the rank of a missionary bishop, and started on 
a life-long campaign against the heathenism of Central Germany. 
His success was immense ; the whole country was evangelised ; 
schools and monasteries and churches arose on all sides ; he is 
the true Apostle of the Germans. In his later days he became 
Archbishop of Mayence ; was the friend of Kings Carloman and 
Pepin, and the leading churchman in Europe. When seventy- 
five years old he went forth once more on a mission to Friesland, 
and there was slain in 755 in a sudden attack of armed 
marauders. His name appears in six English dedications. 



Evangelisation of England S. Gregory S. Augustine of Canterbury S. 
Paulinus S. Aidan S. Cuthbert S. Chad S. Felix S. Kentigern 
S. Birinus S. Wilfrid S. Aldhelm. 

ALL the above famous missioners, S. Martin, S. German, S. Ninian, 
S. Re"mi, and the Celtic saints, S. Patrick, S. Brandan, S. 
Columba, S. Bridget, and S. David, did their life-work mainly, if 
not wholly, outside England, and earlier than the seventh century. 
With that century begins and is carried far towards completion 
the great work of the Conversion of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms 
to Christianity. This Conversion has its own bead-roll of honour, 
and scores of dedications survive to tell of the gratitude of the 
Church to the two famous missions, which, one from the South, 
the other from the North, revived the dying embers of British 
Christianity. In the South the impulse came direct from Rome, 
and from that greatest of the Popes of Rome, S. Gregory, to 
whom, in a life of terrible hard work and constant suffering, his 
mission to England was an especial delight. All know the story 
how, when a monk, he saw for sale in the market-place at Rome 
fair-haired boys from Yorkshire. " Non Angli sed angeli," he 
said, and heard how England was sunk again in heathenism ; 
and then and there organised a mission to England. But 
permission was refused, and the mission fell through. Gregory, 
however, did not forget the Yorkshire boys, and twenty years 
after sent forth a mission of his own, headed by S. Augustine. 
Pope Gregory then is really the Apostle, or at any rate, one of 
the two Apostles, of the English, as indeed Bede expressly 
acknowledges: "'We may and ought to call him our Apostle, 
because he made our nation, till then given up to idols, the 
Church of Christ ; so that, though he is not an Apostle to others, 
yet he is so to us, for we are the seal of his Apostleship in the 
Lord," The success of the Roman mission in Kent and the 
conversion and baptism of King Ethelbert in 597 were a great 
joy to Gregory, and spite of his world-wide activities, he 
personally directed the English mission down to the smallest 
details. Augustine referred everything to him; in fact the 
whole mission was governed from Rome rather than from 



Canterbury, and Gregory, not Augustine, was its real head. 
Rightly and duly therefore is our Apostle, Pope Gregory the 
Great, commemorated in the dedications of 32 English churches. 1 
S. Gregory died in 604, and his missioner, S. Augustine, in the 
following year ; he had .worked at the mission seven years, and 
left his record behind in the foundation of the archbishopric of 

J. H. P. . 

The Mass of S. Gregory. 

. From a M.S. in the Bodleian Library. 

Canterbury and of the bishoprics of Rochester and London. 

1 The following are the emblems of the Crucifixion represented on the 
altar at the Mass of S, Gregory (102).: 

The Cross. The Thirty Pieces of Silver. 

The Three Nails. The Hammer and Pincers. 

The Spear. " The Ladder. 

The Sponge. The Sword. 

The Pillar and Cord. The Lantern. 

The Two Scourges. The Three Boxes of Spices for 

The Three Dice. Embalming. 


A. W.'S. 

Gregory Mass. 
Paignton, Devon. 



S. Felix. 
Ranworth Rood-screen. 

At least 30 churches are dedi- 
cated to S. Augustine ; his 
noblest monument was the mon- 
astery at Canterbury, which he 
dedicated to SS. Peter and Paul, 
but which was re-dedicated in 
commemoration of its founder 
by S. Dunstan; the foundations 
of the vast Norman church of S. 
Augustine have recently been 
disinterred. S: Paulinus was one 
of a second mission sent by Pope 
Gregory to help S. Augustine. 
Eight years he laboured with 
great success in the court of 
Northumbria, penetrating from 
this far down into the Midlands, 
and baptizing vast multitudes in 
the rivers of Yorkshire and the 
Trent. Part of the Derwent is 
still called the Jordan, in memory 
of the many baptisms in its 
waters of subjects of King Edwin 
of Northumbria. With the fall 
however of Edwin's kingdom 
the mission collapsed, and S. 
Paulinus spent his last years at 
Rochester, of which he became 
bishop. He died in 644 : he had 
worked at the evangelisation of 
England for forty-three years. 
He is commemorated by 5 dedi- 
cations ; but it is likely that 
some of the churches which bear 
the name of S. Paul really belong 
to S. Paulinus. 

The other mission did not 
come from Rome at all, but 
from the Celtic Church of the 
North, whose headquarters were 
at lona and Lindisfarne. Till 
recently the great work of S. 
Aidan had received scanty re- 
cognition. Now Bishop Light- 
foot has gone so far as to 



assert that "Not Augustine but Aidan is the true Apostle of 
England." Aidan died in 651 at the old royal Northumbrian 
city of Bamburgh ; whose parish church is the only one 
dedicated in his honour. We may well believe that many a 
church once commemorated his great work ; but all that was 
to the credit of the Celtic Church would be studiously ignored 
when at the Synod of Whitby the Roman Church succeeded in 

S. Kentigern. 
Glasgow Cathedral. 

expelling Celtic Christianity from England. To Melrose and 
Lin.disfarne and Northumbria belong, as has been said above, 
the labours of S. Cuthbeft ; he made a deep impression on his 
times, and is greatly honoured in his own country. With him 
are connected the original dedications of Durham cathedral, 
where at length his body found rest and still remains, and of 
Bolton and Worksop priories, both dedicated to SS, Mary and 
Cuthbert Dedications to S. Cuthbert are rare in Southern 
England ; that of the parish church of Wells is an exception. 



Altogether he Is commemorated 

S. A. 

S. Wilfrid. 

in 72 churches. S. Chad was a 
mission-bishop, first at York, 
afterwards at Lichfield, where 
he died in 672 ; his dedica- 
tions number 32. S. Felix 
was the Apostle of East 
Anglia ; he died in 654 ; he 
has 6 dedications; his name 
is preserved in the S. Felix 
School, Southwold. 1 S. Biri- 
nus died in 650 ; his work 
was in Wessex. He was 
buried in Dorchester Priory 
church, Oxon., from which his 
relics were translated to Win- 
chester cathedral. It was 
reported of S. Birinus that 
after celebrating mass before 
going on board ship, he left 
behind his corporal, which 
was the gift of Honorius. 
When he remembered it, the 
ship was already at sea, but 
Birinus threw himself over- 
board and made for shore, 
recovered the corporal, and 
returned over the water 
to the ship. This scene 
is represented in stained 
glass in Dorchester Abbey 

An earlier evangelist, who 
deserves mention, though his 
work was on Scottish soil, was 
S. Kentigern or Mungo ; his 
mother was S. Enoch ; both 
their names survive at Glas- 

1 On the Ranworth screen the 
orphrey of the chasuble and ap- 
parel are of fleur-de-lis pattern, 
which has been thought to indi- 
cate a bishop of French origin, 
probably S. Felix, Apostle of the 
East Angles. H. A, W. 


gow, the former in S. Mungo's cathedral, the latter in a railway 
station. 1 

The following century, the eighth, saw the death of one of the 
greatest and most strenuous of the seventh-century churchmen 
of England, S. Wilfrid ; he was sufficiently remarkable as a 
missioner and a bishop, but still more so, perhaps, for the 
persistence and success with which he worked for the triumph of 
the Roman Church and the downfall of the Celtic mission in 
England. His was an extraordinarily active and troubled 
life ; at one time an archbishop, at another an exile, at another 
a simple missioner to the starving fishermen of Wessex ; again 
and again travelling to Rome on appeal from the English Church, 
gathering together all Roman fashions of ritual and architecture, 
and the Benedictine ways of the Roman monastery, bringing 
them back and introducing them into the churches which he 
built. The very stones and mortar put together by S. Wilfrid 
still survive in the crypts of Ripon and Hexham, orientated 
in Italian fashion to the west. Altogether he has 48 
dedications ; Ripon minster, where he lies buried, was re-dedi- 
cated to SS. Peter and Wilfrid. 2 A famous scholar and missioner 
in the West country was S. Aldhelm or Mallem (z>., "My 
Aldhelm") of Malmesbury ; a notable ascetic was he; winter and 
summer nightly he said his psalter standing up to his neck in a 
pool of water. He wrote songs and ballads too ; and if the 
village folk would not listen to a sermon, he would sing them his 
poetry. His great memorial is the monastery of S. Aldhelm 
(the nave of its twelfth-century church still stands) and the town 
itself, Malmesbury, i.e., Mealdelmesburgh. He died c. 720 ; four 
churches are dedicated to him. 3 And so ends with the eighth 

1 The illustration shows a shield carved recently and placed in the roof of 
the choir of Glasgow cathedral (105). In his early days his companions killed 
a tame robin, which was a favourite with their master, S. Serf, and threw the 
blame on Kentigern. But Kentigern breathed upon it and it returned to 
life. On another occasion they put out all the lights which it was Kentigern's 
duty to attend to. But he went out it was winter and brought in a frozen 
branch, which, when he breathed upon it, burst into flame. See also 
page 322. 

2 The small figure illustrated was found buried under the Dean's stall in 
1863, and is probably S. Wilfrid (106). In an old print he is shown baptizing 
the heathen ; in the foreground are fragments of temples and idols he has 
thrown down (24). 

3 His pastoral staff was reputed to have budded with ash-leaves during 
the course of a long sermon at Bishopstrow, Wiltshire, where the church is 
dedicated to him : other symbols of his miracles are the beam, the book 
and the boy. G. F. B. 


century the story of the great missionary movements of the 
Dark Ages of mediaeval England. Henceforth the work was 
to hold what had been won work in the main of organisation 
and consolidation, which found scope for the services of many 
great men ; in the ninth century S. Swithun of Winchester 
(58 dedications), in the tenth century S. Dunstan (20 dedications), 
in the eleventh century S. Wolstan or Wolfstan of Worcester (i 
dedication) and S. Osmond of Salisbury (3 dedications), to whom 
we owe the " Use of Sarum." The remaining great churchmen 
whose names appear in dedications are, in the twelfth century 
S. Thomas of Canterbury (46 dedications), and in the thirteenth 
century S. Hugh of Lincoln (i dedication) and S. Richard of 
Chichester (i dedication). 


Chronological List of Martyrs S. Candida S. Agnes SS. Cosmas and 
Damian S. Vincent S. Blaise S. Cyr S. Margaret S. Constantine 
S. Leger S. Winifred S. Oswald S. Osyth S. Edmund S. 
Alphege S. Thomas of Canterbury King Charles the Martyr 
Distribution and Dispersion of Relics of Martyrs S. Bartholomew. 

A VERY important set of dedications consists of those which 
commemorate the " white-robed army of Martyrs/' The choice 
of martyrs' names, however, seems singularly capricious. Hardly 
any two men rendered greater services than those great Fathers 
of the Church, Ignatius and Polycarp, and both suffered 
martyrdom ; yet we have not a single ancient dedication to 
either. Setting aside the martyrdoms of Biblical personages, 
the long list contains, in the first century, the names of SS. 
Gervase and Protasius of Milan (i dedication), and of S. Pancras, 
Bishop of Taormina (10 dedications), reputed to have been sent 
on mission to Sicily by S. Peter himself. 

To the second century belong S. Clement (41 dedications), 
who at any rate in legend suffered martyrdom ; S. Eustachius 
(3 dedications), the Roman officer to whom appeared a stag 
with a dazzling cross in its antlers, bidding him follow Christ; 1 
S. Hermes or Erme (3 dedications), who may have been a 
prefect at Rome ; S. Cecilia (4 dedications), whose blood-stained 
body was recovered in the Catacombs by Pope Paschal I. in 
817; and S. Symphorian of Autun (3 dedications), who like 

1 The illustration, which is from the west front of Wells cathedral, shows 
S. Eustace carrying two boys across a river ; both children are mutilated ; 
originally each had a hand on the father's shoulder. But in the Golden 
Legend the story goes that S. Eustace (whose legend is largely a version 
of that of Job), after losing all his property and his friends and his wife, fled 
from his enemies with his two boys. But coming to a torrent, he found it 
raging so furiously that he could not carry both across at once. So he left 
one behind, and then crossed with the other, whom a wolf carried away. 
Then he returned for the first child, but found that he had been carried off 
by a lion. In later days the boys met and recognised one another and their 
mother, and happiness returned to Eustace for a brief space (no). 



D. AND P. 

Female Saint. S. Eustace. 

West Front of Wells Cathedral. 


Eustachius, scorned to redeem his life by sacrifice to the gods 
of Rome. 

In the third century there are S. Hippolytus of Rome (2 
dedications) who was torn asunder by wild horses, unless indeed 
the story be derived from a "diseased etymology" of his name ; 
S. Fabian, Bishop of Rome (i dedication); S. Agatha of Sicily, 
who has 4 dedications, including that of the ruined Premonstra- 
tensian abbey near Richmond, Yorkshire ;* a great Father of the 

S. Agatha. 

: From stained glass at Manor Farm, Beauvale, Notts. 

Church, S. Cyprian of Carthage (i dedication); S. Lawrence, 
who has the astonishing number of 237 dedications; 3 S. Denis 
(41 dedications), .;patron saint of France, "Bishop of the 
Parisians," who ended this, present life under the sword, and 
carried his severed head ., to Mont-Martre. S. Maurice (8 
dedications), whose name survives in the little town of S, Moritz, 

1 In glass at Winchester S. Agatha holds a nipple in a pair of pincers 
(20) : in glass at Beauvale Manor farm she holds a breast (i 1 1). 

2 In glass at Nettlestead S, Lawrence wears the dalmatic of a deacon, 
and bears a closed book and the model of a gridiron (20). 



S. Lawrence. 
Ranworth Rood-screen. 

S, Pancras of Rome. 
From brass of the Prior of S. Pancras' Abbey, Lewes, at Cowfold, Sussex. 


the place where occurred the decimation of the Theban legion ; 
S. Sebastian, with but two dedications in England, for his fame 1 
was eclipsed by the similar martyrdom of Edmund, king of 
East Anglia; S. George, the patron saint of England, with 
126 dedications ; S. Lucian (i dedication), Bishop of Beauvais ; 
and perhaps the most remarkable of all, S. Christopher, with 
9 dedications. 

To the fourth century, during the Diocletian persecution in 
303 and 304, belongs S. Pancras of Rome (6 dedications), executed 
with the sword at the age of fourteen ; his church, of which 
important remains have been brought to light in the grounds of 
S. Augustine's College, Canterbury, was the first in England 
dedicated by S. Augustine, who had been a monk in the 
monastery of S. Andrew, Rome, founded by S. Gregory, and 
built on land which had belonged to the Pancras family. 
Another victim was S. Candida (2 dedications), who is probably 
commemorated in the church of S. Candida and the Holy Cross 
at Whitchurch, near Lyme Regis, near which was formerly 
a well bearing her name. Not far away are Whitestaunton, 
White Cross, White Lackington, White Town, all probably 
connected with S. Whyte or Candida. A better known virgin 
martyr is S. Agnes of Rome (5 dedications), who suffered 
martyrdom by fire ; she was but thirteen years old. 

" Agnes," says ^Elfiic, 2 " in her thirteenth year lost mortality, 
And found eternal life, for that she loved Christ." 

To her suitor, the son of the prefect of Rome, when he 
brought her precious gems and worldly ornaments, she made 
answer : 

" Depart from me, I have another lover, 
Who hath granted me for a pledge the ring of His Faith, 
And hath set His token upon my face 
- That I should love none other beside Him. 

He hath shewed me also His incomparable treasures, 
Which He hath promised me if I follow Him. 

1 In Henry the Seventh's chapel S. Sebastian is represented naked and 
tied to a tree : on each side is an archer with a cross-bow (160). The picture 
galleries of Italy are crowded with representations of the martyrdom of S. 

2 Homily VI L 25, from ^Elfric's Lives of Saints, edited for the Early 
English Text Society by Professor Skeat, 1881 ; two more series of his Homilies 
were edited by Thorpe in 1844-1846. ^Elfric wrote his Homilies between 
993 and 997 ; he was first a monk at S. Swithun's, Winchester, 'and after- 
wards Prior of Eynsham. 


I may not to His dishonour choose another 

And forsake Him who hath espoused me by His love. 

To Him alone ever I keep my troth ; 

To Him I commit myself with all devotion." 

S. Faith. Westminster. 

"I bless thee," she said, as the flames encompassed her, "0 Father 
of my Lord Jesus Christ, who permittest me unfearing through the 



flames to come to Thee. Lo ! what I believed, that I see; what I 
hoped for, that I hold : what I desired, that I embrace. Thee I con-, 
fess with my lips ; thee with my heart I altogether desire. One and 
true God, I come to Thee." 

A. w. s. 

SS. Cosmas and Damian. 
Wolborough Screen, Devon. 

The basilica of S. Agnese at Rome is her great memorial. 1 The 

1 In glass in the possession of Dr Philip Nelson a lamb is seen springing 
up at the feet of S. Agnes (180). In the other illustration (22) she is read- 
ing a book, and at her feet sits a lamb. 

S. FAITH 117 

Diocletian persecution numbered many victims outside Rome. 
S. Faith of Agen (23 dedications) is said to have suffered by fire. 
To her was dedicated the crypt of Old S. Paul's. At the east 
end of the revestry of Westminster abbey is a thirteenth-century 
painting of S. Faith. Beneath is the Crucifixion. On the left 

The Confessor and S. Vincent. 

is a Benedictine .monk perhaps the painter of the picture from 
whose lips issues the couplet 

" Me quern culpa gmvis premit, erige^ Virgo salutis ; 
Fac mthi placatum Christum, deleasque reatuni? 

" Raise me, Maid and Saviour, weighed down by the load of my 
sin; reconcile Christ to me, and wash away mine iniquity" (115). 
The martyr carries a metal bedstead, as also in the brass of Prior 
Langley in S. Lawrence's church, Norwich (18); and in stained 
glass in Winchester cathedral. Martyrdom was the fate also 
of the two Arabs, Cosrnas and Damian (3 dedications), who 



are said to have practised medicine in Cilicia. 1 The legend 
of these two saints is of ancient origin, and at quite an early 
date they were represented as the successors of the Dioscuri ; 

S. Catherine. S. Mary Magdalene. 

Bench Ends at Coombe-in-Teignhead. 

and the honours paid to them at certain of their shrines 
undoubtedly betray points of contact with pre-existing forms 

1 On the Wolborough screen Cosmas has in his right hand a pestle or 
ladle, and in his left a mortar or jar ; Damian holds up a glass phial (i 16). 



of worship. 1 The Spanish deacon, S. Vincent (6 dedications), 
was roasted over a slow fire till pain brought on uncon- 
sciousness, when he was removed to a soft bed, reserved for 
further torture ; but in his stupor he sank and died. Cape S. 
Vincent is one of his many 
memorials. 2 The persecu- 
tion even reached the distant 
Britons; and S. Alban (n 
dedications) was executed at 
Verulamium, because, though 
a Pagan, he had sheltered a 
Christian priest 3 S. German 
of Auxerre, with many other 
bishops and clergy, c. 430, is 
said to have worshipped at 
the shrine of .England's Pro- 
tomartyr. S. Catherine of 
Alexandria (62 dedications) 
is said to have been saved for 
a time by the breaking of the 
toothed wheel to which she 
was bound, but was after- 
wards scourged and behead- 
ed ; angels bore her body to 
Mount Sinai, where in the 
ninth century it was dis- 
covered amid great rejoicings. 
Another victim was Julian the 
Hospitaller (7 . dedications), 
an Egyptian physician : S. 
Julian's hospital or ".God's 
House " at Southampton pre- 
serves his name. S. Blaise 
(5 dedications) was Bishop, of 
Sebaste in Cappadocia or 
Lesser Armenia ; he was 
carded with iron combs and K . M . c . 
beheaded, c. 316. His most S. Blaise. 

important church in England Rood . scree n, S. Mary Steps, Exeter, 
was that of the Benedictine 

1 Delehaye, -Ibid., 191. 

2 S. Vincent, as one of the patron saints of Henry the Seventh, is 
represented on his tomb (117). 

3 On a brass at S. Albans the saint is shown with a cross as missioner 
or preacher, and with the sword by which he was decapitated (13). 



priory at Boxgrove, dedicated to SS. Mary and Blaise. 1 
Because of the manner of his- torture he became the patron 
saint of all , wool-combers, and till 1825 "Bishop Blaize 
Festival" was a high day at Bradford with processions and 
pageants ; and a child of five was chosen to recite the bishop's 
story in verses, which began thus : 

" Hail to the day whose kind, auspicious rays, 
Deigned first to smile on famous Bishop Blaize," 2 

, H. G. 

S. Lucy. 

From stained glass at Manor Farm, Notts. 

1 In glass at Oxford, S. Blaise is represented as a bishop, holding in his 
hand a wool-comb (20). On the rood-screen of S. Mary Steps, Exeter, 
S. Blaise is represented with a comb in the right hand, and in the left what 
looks like a club. The panel, however, has been clumsily repainted, and the 
club is probably a taper with beams radiating from it. The story is that on 
his way to prison he extracted a fish bone from a child's throat. In the 
evening the mother brought to the. prison food and a taper, and the saint 
promised that all who offered once a year a taper in memory of him should 
have relief from throat trouble (119), 

2 Arnold-Footer, /#&, L 494. 


n. w. 

S. Winifred. S. Margaret. 

Henry the Seventh's Chapel, Westminster. 



S. Cyriac or S. Cyr of Iconium (9 dedications) was three years 
old when his mother, Julitta, was put on the rack for her faith 
by the heathen governor. The little child tried to run to his 
mother, crying, " I am a Christian too/ 1 when he was seized and 
flung against the marble steps and killed. The mother was then 
beheaded. S. Lucy of Syracuse (2 dedications) plucked out 
her eyes rather than marry a pagan. 1 To this period, perhaps, 
belongs the story of S. Barbara (i dedication), who may have 
lived in Egypt; and of S. Margaret of Antioch in Pisidia (261 
dedications), a very apocryphal martyr, but a very great favourite 
in dedications, largely, perhaps, because of the last words she 
uttered before her execution. 

" Hearken to my prayer, God, and grant to every man who shall 
write my life and relate my works or shall hear or read them that his 
name be written in the book of eternal life ; and whosoever shall build 
a church in my name, do not bring him to thy remembrance to punish 

him for his wrongdoings." 

But in 312 A.D. came the Peace of the Church, and axe and 
s\vord and fire, scaffold and cross, gridiron and rack and wheel, 
ceased for a time to provide their quota of Christian martyrs. 
For two whole centuries, except in the Celtic Church, no names 
of martyrs survive in our list of dedications. The most remark- 
able is that of Constantine or Cystennyn, a king of Cornwall in 
the sixth century. In a letter written in 547, Gildas tells of his 
perjuries and dissoluteness, even of sacrilegious murder of two 
youths in the very church itself. But a great grief fell upon him 
in the' death of his wife, and he was henceforth a changed man. 
He gave up his royal state and retired to an Irish monastery, 
where he lived unknown, grinding corn in a quern for the monks, 
till one day one of his brethren heard him say, with a laugh, to 
himself, "Can this be King Constantine of Cornwall, wlio wore 
helm and bore shield, drudging at a handmill?" His identity 
discovered, he was placed among the students, -and afterwards 
went as a missionary into Scotland, There he laboured under 
the great Columba, and there in Cantire he met a martyr's death. 
To Constantine three if not more English churches are dedicated, 
and the Cornish parish of Constantine bears his name. 

To the seventh century belongs S. Leodegarius, Bishop of 
Autun (5 dedications), whose remains now rest at Poitiers. 
When Autun was besieged, he defended it as long as defence 
was possible, and then ransomed the lives of all at the price of 

1 In a painting in the Louvre, S. Lucy holds the palm of martyrdom and 
carries her eyes in a dish (22, 120). 

S. LEGER 123 

his own. He was blinded and tortured and mutilated in every 
limb ; but at last recovered articulate speech. The letter which 

E. W. A. 

S. Leger, S. Apollonia. 

Rood-screen at Ashton, Devon. 

he wrote to his mother after the loss of his eyes and the slashing 
of his lips is still extant Two years later he was conducted 
forth into the forest. For long the executioners wandered about, 


seeking a fitting place, till the bishop said, " It is useless, my 
children, to tire yourself further ; do quickly that for which you 
have come forth." Then he knelt down and received the death 
blow. Ashby S. Leger preserves his name, and its church is 
dedicated to SS. Mary and Leodegare. 1 Six churches are 
attributed, more or less doubtfully, to the Welsh virgin, S. 
Winifred or Gwenfrewi, who is supposed to have lived in the 
seventh century, but whose legendary life is five centuries later. 
At any rate her name is preserved in the spring which bursts 
up in Holywell, Flintshire. A spring of such volume and 
force was doubtless an object of worship long before Christian 
days. Above ground is a fifteenth-century chapel of the Church 
of England ; the undercroft forms another chapel, leased to the 
Roman Catholic Church. Pilgrims still resort to it in great 
numbers ; and crutches, spinal jackets and the like, hung on the 
walls round the pool in which the sick are immersed, bear 
evidence to the recoveries that have taken place. It is perhaps 
because of her connection with this famous spring that her name 
is attached to two other springs, Holywell, Oxford, and 
Woolston, Salop. 2 

To the same century belong two Christian kings of 
Northumbria, each slain by Penda, the heathen king of 
Mercia ; viz., S. Edwin and S. Oswald. 8 S. Edwin (i dedication) 
was the first Christian king of Northumbria ; it was his queen, 
Ethelburga, who brought with her from Kent S. Paulinus as her 
chaplain. In 627 King Edwin was baptized in the church of 
S, Peter, York, the first York minster. In 636 he was defeated 
and slain by Penda. His successor, King Oswald (67 dedica- 
tions), was one of the greatest and best of all the kings we have 
had 'in England, to be ranked with the French S. Louis and our 

1 On the screen at Ashton, Devon, S. Leger bears the auger with which 
his eyes were bored out (123). 

2 In the illustration there are at the feet of S. Winifred what looks like a 
beheading block and a severed head (121). 

3 S. Oswald is often represented with a raven which he used as a 
messenger to obtain the conversion and hand of a pagan princess. In the 
Lubeck Passionate he is receiving a letter from her and sending her a ring 
(26). Or he holds in his hand a dish, as on the west front of Wells cathedral. 
He was seated at dinner one day with S. Aidan, and there was outside a 
great crowd of poor folk begging for food. So the king sent them the food 
on his silver dish, and brake the dish and distributed the fragments to them. 
Wherefore, said S. Aidan, the right hand that brake the dish should be 
blessed. And after the king's death his right hand was found to be incorrupt, 
and was preserved in Peterborough abbey as one of its holiest treasures 


W. M. D. 

S. Lambert 
S. Mary's, Shrewsbury. 



own Alfred. He fell in 642. His skull was preserved at 
Lindisfarne; and when the body of S. Cuthbert set out on -.its 
long wanderings Durhamward, it was placed in his coffin, where 
it was seen in 1829 and 1899. S. Oswald's fame spread far ; he 

K. M. C. 

S. SidwelL 
S. SidwelPs Church, Exeter. 

is mentioned in Swiss and German liturgies, and he is the patron 
saint of Zug. Queen Osyth or Sitha (4 dedications) ran away 
from an apostate husband and became a nun at Chick or S. 
Osyth in Essex. Danish pirates sailed up the Coin and slew 
her; the place where she fell is still called the "Nun's Well." 



When her head was struck from her body, there gushed forth a 
spring of pure water ; and she walked to her grave as she is 
shown on the Convent sealcarrying her~head in her hand. 

To the eighth century belongs King Ethelbert of East 
Anglia (16 dedications), murdered by Offa, king of the Mercians ; 
also S. Lambert, Bishop of Maestricht, slain in /OQ, 1 to whom 
there are two dedications ; and S. Sidwell or Sativola, martyred 
in 740 on the site of S. Sidwell church, Exeter, which there- 
fore is a memorial church. The church of Laneast, Cornwall, is 
dedicated to SS. Welvela and Sativola. By far the most notable 
martyr in this century was that 
greatest of the men of Devon and 
most famous of missionary bishops, 
S. Boniface, slain in 755 (6 dedica- 

In the ninth century almost all 
the English martyrs are .of royal 
blood. They include young King 
Kenelm of Mercia (9 dedications) ; 
Wyston or Winston, another child- 
king of Mercia (3 dedications) ; 
Alkmund, a young king of North- 
umbria (4 dedications). Then we ; 
come to the terrible times which 
were to open out in England for 
nearly a century and a half another 
broad road to martyrdom : these 
were the days of the " piratical 
forays of the heathen Vikings. 
Then it was, from the end of the 
ninth century, that the Irish built 
their Round Towers, each to be 
a strong place of refuge for the 
congregation of .the church hard 
by; then it was in England that yet another roll of saints and 
martyrs was added to the lists of those to whom England 
should dedicate her churches. They comprise S. Edmund, 
king of East Anglia (61 dedications) ; . S. Alkelda (2 dedications) ; 
S. Alphege (S dedications) ; and two more martyrs, Scandinavians 
both, King Olaf(i3 dedications) and Earl Magnus (3 dedications). 2 

1 The window at S. Mary's, Shrewsbury, contains foreign glass, probably 
Flemish. The saint's name appears at the back. Below is the donor of the 
glass (125). 

2 S. Magnus was beheaded in an invasion of the pagan Northmen. 

J. F. E. 

S. Edmund's Head. 
Ely Cathedral. 


As the number of his dedications shows, few things appealed 
more to churchmen and Englishmen than the martyrdom of 
S. Edmund, the beloved king of East Anglia, where one-third of 
his dedications occur. Tradition of long date connects his 
martyrdom with the village of Hoxne, Suffolk, where still 
Goldbrook stream is shown, beneath the bridge of which he hid, 
a bridge which no wedding party will cross and the field where 
till 1848 stood a very ancient oak, twenty feet in girth, to which 
it was said he was bound as a target to the Danish arrows. 
When the tree fell, there was found " the point of an arrow, partly 
corroded, projecting from the inside of the hollow part of the 
trunk, about four and a half or five feet from the ground, which 
part had warted nearly two feet through the inside of the tree, 
and was perfectly decayed about the arrow, and was covered 
a little more than a foot thick with sound wood, the annual ring 
or layer showing the growth of more than 1,000 years, as near 
as can be made out" 1 After a time the king was unloosed 
from the tree and beheaded. In many places in East Anglia, 
e.f. 9 on the parapet of the beautiful porch of Pulham S. Mary the 
Virgin, a wolf is shown guarding his head. 2 

Here is a tenth-century version of the story. After the retreat 
of the Danes there was great search for the head 'of the king, 
and at last they came to the place 

" Where lay a grey wolf who guarded the head, 
And with his two feet had embraced the head 
Greedy and hungry, and for God's care durst not 
Taste the head, but kept it against other beasts. 
Then they were astonished at the wolfs guardianship, 
And carried the holy head home with them. 
But the wolf followed forth with the head 
Until they came to the town as if he were tame, 
And then turned back again unto the wood." 8 

In stained glass, in a window of the Lady chapel of Bristol 
cathedral, S. Edmund is depicted nude, tied to a tree ; in his 
body are arrows shot by two archers ; also a white wolf guards 

1 Bury Post, Oct. nth, 1848. 

2 On the Norfolk rood-screen S. Edmund holds in his hand two arrows 
(13). On a stone seat in Ely cathedral the wolf is shown guarding the 
king's head (127). The statuette on the grille of Henry the Seventh's tomb at 
Westminster is shown with a crown in Hollar's drawing. It probably held 
an arrow or arrows (76). In a stone statue in the same chapel, S. Edmund 
holds in one hand the orb of sovereignty ; in the other probably was an 
arrow (158). 



a head. Of the vast abbey of S. Edmund at Bury, Suffolk, 
where his remains were finally enshrined, little but the gateways 

To the tenth century belong young King Edward the Martyr, 
referred to above, and a princess of somewhat doubtful authen- 
ticity, Alkelda, with 2 dedications: she is said to have been 
strangled by the Danes. 

To the eleventh century belongs S. Alphege, Archbishop of 
Canterbury, with 5 dedications, including that of S. Alphege, 
Greenwich, which is a Memorial church erected on the site of 
his murder. From the 8th to the 29th of September ion, 
Canterbury had been besieged by the Danes. It was defended 
by the archbishop till it was taken by treachery. S. Alphege 
refused to allow himself to be ransomed ; and after being dragged 
about for seven months, was slain with stones and arrows in a 
drunken orgy of the Danes. 1 His bones lay for ten years in 
S. Paul's, London, till they were translated "with much state 
and bliss and songs of praise" to Canterbury cathedral by King 
Canute, himself a Dane. In Norway, King Olaf or Olave the 
Stout was so stern a proselytiser that the country rose against 
him, and he was slain near Trondhjem in 1030 ; whereupon he 
became Olave the Saint : he has 13 dedications in England. 
S. Olaf is represented in the east window of the south aisle of 
Holy Trinity church, York, as a saintly personage, with 
moustache and beard, carrying in his left hand three stones ; the 
story is that finding that a maidservant had been forced to bake 
instead of saying her prayers, he turned three of the loaves into 
stones. 2 

To the twelfth century belongs another Northman, S. Magnus, 
Jarl of Orkney, with 3 dedications. On his way from Mass he 
was arrested and beheaded in 1 107 ; people say that a flower 
may always be found in bloom where he fell. On either side of 
London Bridge a church commemorates a Northman, the 
London church of S. Magnus facing the Southwark church of 
S. Olave. Both these commemorate martyrdoms which took 
place far away. But England was to have one more famous^ 
martyr, the most famous of all, S. Thomas of Canterbury, whose 
murder in 1 170 sent a wave of horror through Christendom. 

Here is the story of the martyrdom in Caxton's translation : "Then 
one of the knights smote him on the head as he kneeled before the 

1 S. Alphege is probably one of a group of saints represented on an ivory 
in the British Museum. 

2 In the illustration S. Olave or Holofius carries a spear and loaves (13). 
For the shape of the loaves cf. S. Sitha (217). 



A. H. . .' 

S. Thomas of Canterbury. 
From Prior Nelonde's brass at Cowfold, Sussex. 


altar. And one, Sir Edward Gryme, that was his crossbearer, put forth 
his arm with the cross to bear off the stroke, and the stroke smote the 
cross in sunder and his arm almost off, wherefore he fled for fear, and 
so did all the monks that were at that time at Compline. And then 
smote each at him, that they smote off a great piece of the skull of his 

A. G. 

Murder of Becket 
Alabaster Table. 

head 1 that his brain fell on the pavement. And so they slew and 
martyred him ; and were so cruel that one of them brake the point of 

1 He is therefore sometimes represented bearing in his hand the corona or 
upper portion of his skull ; ^in one of the statues of the west front of 
Wells cathedral (132). In a window at the east end of the south aisle of 
Lincoln nave S. Thomas of Canterbury is represented carrying in his hands 
the severed crown (corona) of his skull, escorted to heaven by three angels, 
two in front, while a third urges him forward (Nelson's Painted Gtass, 141) 



T. P. 

S. Thomas of Canterbury and Warrior. 
West Front of Wells Cathedral. 



his sword against the pavement ; and thus this holy and blessed Arch- 
bishop saint Thomas suffered death in his own church." 

There is hardly a country in Europe but has churches dedi- 
cated to S, Thomas of Canterbury. In England 80 dedications 
have been traced. But in 1537 Henry VIII. blotted out Becket's 
name from the service-books, and most of the saint's churches 
no doubt either changed their dedications, or, lopping off the 
last two words, left the dedication apparently to S. Thomas the 
apostle. A curious history attaches to the little cruciform 
Norman church high up on the downs between Guildford and 

Murder of Becket 
Boss in Exeter Cathedral. 

Dorking, on the way by which the pilgrims went to Canter- 
bury. Originally it was the church of the " Holy Martyrs"; 
then, no doubt after the murder of Becket, it was re-dedicated to 
"S. Thomas of Canterbury and All Holy Martyrs"; then when 
the former part of the second dedication had to be dropped, it 
became " Martyrs' church " ; finally this was corrupted into 
" S. Martha's church "on S. Martha's Hill ; a dedication otherwise 
quite unknown in England. 1 And so we come to the last solemn 
scene of all, the end of the sad, eventful story of the martyrs, 
the death at Whitehall in 1649 of King Charles, 

1 Charles Browne, Ibid., 293. 


" Who nothing common did or mean 
Upon that memorable scene, 
But bowed his comely head 
Down, as upon a bed." 

Churches are dedicated to Charles, King and Martyr, at 
Falmouth and Plymouth, Peak Forest, Derbyshire, Newtown, 
Salop, and Tunbridge Wells. 

A special reason which kept the 
name of a martyr in repute was the 
survival and the wideness of diffusion 
and the reputation of his relics. Of the 
non-Biblical saints in our lists of dedica- 
tions, only two go back to the first 
century of our era. One is the double 
dedication of SS. Gervase and Protasius. 
They are supposed to be the proto- 
martyrs of Milan, and to have been 
executed in the time of Nero. The 
preservation of their names for 1,900 
years is wholly due to the discovery by 
S. Ambrose in the fourth century of the 
bodies of two men of wondrous size, 
which were believed to be those of the 
twin brothers. As far as dedications go, 
they are honoured more than Ambrose ; 
for Little Plumstead, Essex, is dedicated 
to them, while to Ambrose we have no 
certain dedication at all. So also the 
name of S. Clement is held in the 
greater honour because of the strange 
story of his shrine and relics. It may 
well be that the name of England's 
proto-martyr, S. Alban, would have 
altogether perished, had not Offa, king 
of the Mercians, warned by a dream, 
searched for his grave on the hillside of 
S. Albans, from which he translated 
the relics with all pomp and magni- 
' ficence to the abbey church which he 
built to guard them. 

A good many dedications to foreign saints are undoubtedly 

due to the fact that one or more English churches had obtained 

.portions of their relics. Thus in the year 665 Pope Vitalian 

sent some of the relics of S. Pancras of Rome to King Oswy of 

Northumbria. The puzzle is that of the eight dedications to 

S. Bartholomew. 


S. Pancras of Rome, one is in Kent, three in Sussex, three in 
London ; only one, at Wroot, Lincolnshire, is within what were 
Oswy's dominions. The same explanation may apply to several 
cases in which there are .but one or two dedications to some 
Gallican or Italian or Spanish saint ; eg., to S. Medard at Little 
Bytham, Lincolnshire ; to S. Firmin at North Crawley, Bucks., 
and Thurlby, Lincolnshire ; to S. Sebastian at Great Gonerby, 
Lincolnshire, and Wokingham, Berkshire. 

Of the apostles the premier places are taken by S. Peter, 
S. Andrew, S. James the Greater, S. John, and S. Bartholomew, 

w. P. Y.- 

S.John Divine. S. Bartholomew. 

Stanbury Chantry, Hereford Cathedral. 

with 1,140, 637,414, 181, and 165 dedications respectively. Next 
comes S. Thomas with 46 dedications, some of them dubious. 
Why was that "somewhat obscure" apostle, Bartholomew, so 
much in favour ? It is not that his legendary history is specially 
striking. The reason is probably to be found in the many 
strange tales that were told of the miraculous preservation of his 
remains, as well in their wide diffusion. In the Middle Ages 
half the leading cities of the Continent appear to have boasted of 
some relic of this apostle. Nor was England omitted in the 
distribution. An arm was taken to Canterbury by Anselm ; it 
is possible that this relic may have influenced the dedication of 
several English churches. 1 His great memorial is the church of 

Arnold-Forster, /<&/., i. 82. 


S. Bartholomew, Smithfield, begun in 1123, of which the chancel 
and transept still remain. It was founded by Raherus or Rayer, 
"a pleasant-witted gentleman," says Strype, "and therefore in 
his time called the king's minstrel." 

Being at Rome on pilgrimage, he fell ill of malarial fever, and 
vowed to found a hospital " for the recreacion of poure men " if he 
recovered. Then he was carried up in a vision by a great beast having 
four feet and two wings, to a very lofty place, whence he saw the 
horror of the bottomless pit. From this he was saved by a majestic 
personage who said unto him " I am Bartholomew, the Apostle of Jesus 
Christ, that come to succour thee in thy anguish, and to open to thee 
the secret mysteries of heaven. Know me truly by the will and 
commandment of the High Trinity to have chosen a place in the 
suburbs of London at Smithfield, where in my name thou shalt found 
a church; and it shall be the house of God; there shall be the 
tabernacle of the Lamb, the temple of the Holy Ghost This spiritual 
house Almighty God shall inhabit and hallow it and glorify it ; and his 
eyes shall be open and his ears intending on this house night and day, 
that the asker in it shall receive, the seeker shall find, and the ringer or 
knocker shall enter. Wherefore doubt thee not, in God having trust ; 
do thou make nothing of the costs of this building, only give thy 
diligence, and my part shall be to provide things necessary, and to 
build and end this work, and with evident tokens and signs to protect 
and defend continually under the shadow of my wings this work by me 
accept." With these words the vision "" 

Rayer, returning to London, got the sanction and help of his 
master, King Henry L, and began the work, which was soon 
aided by miraculous agency, for a marvellous light shone on the 
building as it arose ; the blind who visited it received their sight, 
cripples were healed, and the hiding-place of a choir-book hidden 
by a Jew was miraculously revealed. R'ahere died in 1144, 
leaving the church in the charge of thirteen Austin Canons, 
increased by his successor to thirty-five, 1 S. Bartholomew is 
recorded to have been flayed alive, and is represented with a 
flaying knife in his hand, and sometimes with his skin over his 
arm, as on the bronze grille round the tomb of King Henry VII. 
in Westminster abbey. 

1 At Blythburgh S. Bartholomew holds a flaying knife (63) ; this also 
appears with his name in the Stan bury chantry, Hereford cathedral (135). 
On the grille in Henry the Seventh's chapel, Westminster, his skin, including 
the skull, is thrown over the left arm (134). 



Saints without Dedication S. William of York S. Dorothy 
S. Ursula Les Saintes Maries. 

SUCH then is the story, told as briefly as may be, of the long 
roll of the saints whose names and whose merits and whose 
services the English Church has delighted to commemprate in 
the dedications of her churches. It is a list which gives furiously 
to think. Some personages appear whom perhaps it is a 
little difficult to recognise as saints. It was not primarily for 
religion that Archbishop Alphege, Kings Edwin and Oswald of 
Northumberland, and .many another Anglo-Saxon king gave up 
his life. Many a high-born Saxon lady earned canonisation by 
precisely such services as those rendered by the founders of 
Cheltenham College, and Girton, Newnham, and Somerville. 
Equally strange are the omissions. No English church is 
dedicated to the "Apostles" as a whole; though Justinian's 
church of the Apostles was as famous in Christendom as S, 
Sophia, and was indeed the prototype of S. Mark's, Venice. 
Of the apostles, S. Simon and S. Jude have no individual 
dedications, but are nine times commemorated together. 1 S. 
Matthias has one doubtful dedication. 2 There are many dedica- 
tions to S. Anne, the apocryphal mother of the Blessed Virgin, 
but none to the mother of S. John Baptist, the cousin of the 
Blessed Virgin. 8 Yet " Elizabeth " is one of the most popular 
Christian names in England, reminding one, as it does, not only 
of the S, Elizabeth of S. Luke's gospel, but of good S. Elizabeth 
of Hungary and of the greatest of our English queens. We have 
no ancient dedication to S. Mary of Bethany, but that is because 
she was identified with S. Mary Magdalene. Cleopas' walk to 
Emmaus with the risen Lord on he first Easter Sunday 
is forgotten; as also are Silas, fellow-sufferer with S. Paul at 

1 On the Ranworth screen, S. Simon, having been a fisherman, carries a 
fish (56) ; while S. Jude carries a boat (82). 

2 On the stall panels at Blythburgh, S. Matthias holds the axe by which 
he was slain (63). So also on page 261. 

3 S. Elizabeth is depicted in Morley church, Derbyshire, with a blue 
cloak over a white robe, and holding a book in her right hand. 




S. William of York. 
York Minster. 

Philippi, and Timothy and 
Titus and Philemon. So 
it is with the Fathers of 
the Church ; we have no 
ancient dedication to S. 
Ignatius of Antioch, or to 
S. Polycarp of Smyrna, 
or to S. Athanasius of 
Alexandria, or to S. Chry- 
sostom of Constantinople. 
Of the agents of the Con- 
version of Anglo-Saxon 
England, Birinus was for- 
gotten; except so far as he 
once shared a compound 
dedication of Winchester 
cathedral As to the 
founders of the great Re- 
ligious orders, there is no 
recognition of the Cluniac 
S. Berno, of the Carthusian 
S. Bruno, of the Cister- 
cians, Stephen Harding 
and S. Bernard ; nor of the 
Black Friar, S. Dominic. 1 
Saddest of all is the omis- 
sion of Bede, to whose 
lifelong scholarly labours 
we owe such knowledge 
of early Church history as 
is to be found nowhere 
else in Europe. Without 
commemoration in dedica- 
tions, but not uncommon 
on roods, screens, and 
stained glass, is S. Wil- 
liam, Archbishop of York, 
after whose death in 1154 
thirty-six miracles were 

1 S. Dominic, in a print in 
the British Museum, has a star 
over hisjhead, a church in his 
left hand, and in his right a 
closed book, plant and crucifix. 


S. William of York, 
All Saints', York. 


reported to have been, wrought, at his tomb, a list whereof 
formerly hung in the vestry of the minster : he was canonised 

E. W. A. 

S.Dorothy. S. Clement. 

Rood-screen at Ashton, Devon. 

in 1227. The great window in the north-east transept of York 
minster contains 105 panels of ancient glass, depicting the 
donors of the window, scenes from the life of S. William, the 



miracles performed after his death, incidents connected with his 
translation, and miracles of his lifetime. 1 

S. Antony of Egypt. S. Ursula. 

Rood-screen, Ashton, Devon, 

A very favourite saint, not commemorated by any dedication, 

1 The glass in the minster (138) is more than a century older than that of 
All Saints V North Street, York (139). 



P. N. 


:? is S. Dorothy. She is 
said to have been a 
high-born maiden of 
Csesarea ; and having 
become a Christian 
during the Diocletian 
persecution, was or- 
dered by the prefect 
to sacrifice to the 
gods. On her refusal 
she was put to the 
rack ; and two of her 
old playmates, who 
had been Christians 
and had apostatized 
through fear, were 
called in to persuade 
her to follow their ex- 
ample. But Dorothy 
succeeded in bringing 
them back to the 
Christian faith, and 
they were at once hur- 
ried off to martyrdom. 
Dorothy was reserved 
for further suffering ; 
and when her life was 
visibly sinking under 
the torments, she also 
was led to the block. 
The prefect urged her 
even then to recant 

and ask forgiveness of 
the gods ; but she an- 

:,; swered that she would 
ask forgiveness for 

- himself in the land 
whither she was going, 
" a land of perpetual 
light and joy, and 
spring and sunshine, 
and fadeless flowers 

delicious fruits." Theophilus, a notary, standing by, asked 
jestingly to send him some of the flowers and fruit of which 
spoke. This she promised- to do, and was presently beheaded. 

, S. Ursula. 
Wooden statuette. 

S. URSULA 143 

And not long after there appeared to Theophilus a beautiful 
boy with three roses and three apples, and saying, " These my 
sister Dorothea sends from Paradise," immediately vanished. 
Theophilus became a Christian, and he too soon after suffered 
martyrdom. 1 

S. Ursula too is without a dedication in any English church ; 
which is the more surprising as she was fabled to be a British 
princess, to whom there were 11,000 virgins for handmaids. 
With these she sailed over the sea in a day, the ship having so good 
a wind, and came to a port of Gaul, and thence by some round- 
about route to Rome, where she talked over the Pope Cyriacus 
and the Bishop of Ravenna and other bishops, and was joined by 
Prince Conan and a British king, whom some style her husband, 
Ethereus. 2 With these companions, some of whom are shown in 
the illustration on page 306, Ursula and her companions set out 
to Cologne, which was besieged by the Huns. Whom when the 
Huns saw, they ran upon them with a great cry, and all the 
virgins they beheaded save the blessed Ursula, whom their prince 
shot at with an arrow so that she died. Ursula and her virgins 
are buried at Cologne in a great church dedicated to her. With 
arrow and numerous virgins she is depicted in fifteenth-century 
glass at Hault-Hucknall, Derbyshire. At Morley, Derbyshire, 
she is represented in stained glass, ascending up to heaven with 
eleven virgin martyrs in a sheet. 3 

The Church of England is poorer also for the loss of a 
Bearded Lady. S. Wilgeforte or Uncumber actually went to 
the length of praying for a beard in order to ward off suitors, 
which it did effectually ; her statue in Henry the Seventh's 
chapel, Westminster, represents her with a woman's long-hair, 
but a bushy beard. According to Sir Thomas More she was in 
great favour with housewives, because "for a peck of oats she 
would not fail to uncumber them of their husbands." 

We may add the names of two saintly personages who have 
no dedications in England, but are held in great honour in 
Provence, viz., two Maries ; not Our. Lady or S. Mary Magdalene 

1 On the rood-screen at Ash ton, Devon, S. Dorothy carries in one hand 
a basket of fruit and in the other the palm of martyrdom (140). In glass in 
the possession of Dr Philip Nelson, S. Dorothy bears a flower in her left 
hand and a basket of fruit in her right (180). 

2 There are varying histories of her journey, all alike unveracious. 
According to one version her husband was Ethereus, a British king ; and 
among her companions was Pantulus, Bishop of Basle ; Jaques, Bishop of 
Liege ; Sulpicius, Bishop of Ravenna ; and Cyriacus, who is fabled to have 
resigned the papal throne to go with her. See the Golden Legend. 

3 Nelson's Painted Glass, 70. 


D. \V. 

S. Barbara. S, Uncumber. 

Henry the Seventh's Chapel, Westminster. 


or Mary of Bethany, but Marie Salome and Marie Jacobe, as 
they are styled in French. 

The story goes that some three and thirty years after the Ascension 
there was a great persecution in Judsea, and S. Mary Magdalene, 
Lazarus, and Martha, Mary, the mother of the Apostles James and 
John, and Mary, the mother of James the Less, and others, were 
arrested and put on board a ship without oars or mast or rudder, and 
set adrift. After many days they were thrown ashore in the swamps 
of the Rhone. Here a spring of pure water bubbled up in answer to 
their prayers, and an altar was set up, fragments of which are said still 
to remain. S. Mary Magdalene and Lazarus evangelised Marseilles, 
and Martha Tarascon ; l but the two Maries stayed behind, and in due 
course died, and were buried near the spring and altar, and over their 
grave arose a church, which in 1144 was rebuilt,, strong and new and 
fortified against the raids of the Saracens j this is the existing church, 
in which still flows the precious spring. In the sixth century mention 
is made in a will of the church of the two Sanctce Marm de nave; 
and the ancient armorial bearings of the place show a ship containing the 
two Maries together with their servant, and the legend Navis in Pelago. 
In 1448 good King Rene of Provence got permission to excavate, and 
found buried two bodies, one on each side of the altar, and also four 
skulls arranged in a square exactly in accordance with the story 
preserved by Gervais of Tilbury, a chronicler of the preceding century. 
In December the relics were solemnly transferred to three coffers in the 
presence of a cardinal, an archbishop, twelve bishops, and" four abbots, 
and the coffers were placed in a strong chest, locked and sealed, and 
above the chancel was built a strong room of stone for its safe custody. 
Above the chancel arch is an opening through which every year on the 
24th of May the chest is passed, and slowly lowered by a capstan to 
the floor of the nave, where it remains for twenty-four hours. All the 
district attends the ceremony, for on it depend good harvest and good 
fishing, and many cures are wrought of the afflicted. 2 

1 In a painting at Florence, S. Martha is shown exorcising the dragon of 
Tarascon with holy water; A huge canvas model of the dragon is still 
preserved at Tarascon ( 1 8, 46). 

2 Sacristy, iii. 188. 



Dramatic Stories S. Margaret of Antioch S. Barbara S. George S. 
Clement S. Andrew S. Maurice and the Theban Legion S. Lawrence 
S. Anthony the Great S. Erasmus S. Sebastian S. Cecily S. 
Catherine S. Christopher and the Child S. Rumbald S. Nicholas 
S. Leonard S. Benedict Julian the Hospitaller S. Elizabeth of 
Hungary S. Roche S. Giles SS. Cosmas and Damian S. Hubert 
S. Eustace S. Francis. . 

IF now we turn to those who were actually admitted to the 
roll of honour, the reason for their presence is sometimes far to 
seek. Perhaps we do not always remember that the old Church 
folk were very human people ; more human, less sophisticated 
than ourselves. The Bible stories and the Legends of the Saints 
meant to them all that Mudie's Library or the Times Book 
Club means to us. Just like ourselves nowadays, they preferred 
a good story to a bad one, an interesting story to a dull one, 
one with plot and incident and adventure to a story of ordinary 
people behaving in a commonplace manner ; they liked flesh and 
blood personages better than abstractions; they liked local 
colour and abundance of detail and characterisation ; they liked 
" strong " situations ; they liked a story with plenty of fighting 
and adventure in it, if possible there should be dragons j 1 they 

1 Saints famous for conquest of dragons were SS. Michael, Pol de Leon, 
George, Martha, Margaret, and Armel. In a Book of Hours conjectured 
to have been executed in the time of Henry VII. for his son, afterwards king, 
and now in the possession of Mr Leighton, 40 Brewer Street, W., is a 
representation of S. Armigile, to which these words are affixed : " Whooso 
deuotely say this prayor folio wyng in the worship of allmyghti god and 
saynt Armyle they shalbe relesyd of all maner of sickenesse and soris." 
" Sancte die preciose 

Aduacote gloriose 

Confessor Armigile." 

The whole prayer is given in full from the Horae^ No. 51, in Dr Montague 
James' Catalogue of Fitzwilliam MSS. In the above MS. S. Armyle is 
depicted in full armour, over which is a blue cloak ; he is bearded and has 
the tonsure ; in his right he holds a red book, in his left a crosier ; under 
his feet is the dragon of the river Seich which he slew. In a statue at 



liked the dramatic and 
picturesque; they liked in- 
cidents that gripped the 
imagination; they liked the 
ghostly and supernatural ; 
they wanted miracles and 
plenty of them, and the 
more out of the ordinary 
the miracles, the more im- 
pressive they were ; they 
greatly liked stones about 
relics ; they appreciated 
Virtue and the Triumph of 
Virginity as much as a 
Drury Lane gallery ; and 
just as much they loved to 
hear of the simple affec- 
tions of daily life, of mother 
and child, husband and wife, 
brother and sister; they 
loved stories about children 
and about lovers of chil- 
. dren ; and very much also 
stories about kindness to 
poor folk, and the sick, and 
' the lepers, and the captives ; 
and as much as anything, 
being country folk, they 
liked stories about animals. 
As the stories were passed 
on from one generation to 
another, they were ampli- 
fied and . improved ; ulti- 
mately a fine old crusted 
legend was evolved. The 
story of the stoning of 
S. Stephen in the Acts is 

Westminster he is leading off a 
dragon which he had bound 
.round the neck with his stole 
(93). On an alabaster plaque 
in the possession of Stonyhurst 
College S. Armel wears plate 
armour under a chasuble, and 
with his stole holds a dragon. 

S. Margaret of Antioch. 
Ranvvorth Rood-screen. 


dramatic enough; and gained him 46 dedications; he ^ might 
have had more, but, being in the Bible, the story did not 
admit of amplification arid embroidery. On the other hand, 
no mention is made in the Bible of the latter days of S. Mary 
Magdalene ; and so she could be provided by mediaeval admirers 
with a set of legends as to her doings in Provence, and obtained 
187 dedications. So withS. Andrew ; it is not to the^Scriptural 
but to the legendary story that he owes in the main his 637 
dedications. 1 The apostle S. Thomas stands fairly well in the 
list because of his adventures, not as an apostle, but as carpenter 
and builder in a missionary tour in India. S. Margaret of 
Antioch is a somewhat apocryphal saint, and 261 dedications 
seem rather more than she deserves. But listen to her story : 

"Then there suddenly appeared to her in the corner of the prison 
a marvellous dragon ; from his nostrils proceeded smoke and fire, and 
he uttered a strong, rough voice, and fire from his mouth gave light to 
all the prison. And the dragon came at her with his mouth wide open, 
and swallowed her. But the sign of the cross which she put upon her 
grew in the mouth of the dragon, and became greater and greater 
until it cleaved him into two pieces." 

Of this there was an improved version, which makes out that 
Margaret did not make the sign of the cross till she had been 
swallowed and was inside the dragon ; and she is often shown 
just emerging from the ruptured beast. 2 From this an important 
corollary was drawn, viz., that as Margaret had escaped from 
the dragon's belly, she was the proper saint to be invoked by 
women in the pangs of childbirth. This doubtless contributed 
greatly to her popularity. Of the legend of S. Barbara one 
version is told at length in the Golden Legend. 

Her father was building a cistern or piscina with a tower, and in 
his absence she caused three windows to be substituted for two. And 
when he returned, he demanded why three. And S. Barbara answered, 
"These three windows betoken clearly the Father, the Son, and the 
Holy Ghost, on whom we ought to believe and worship." Then he 
incontinent drew his sword to have slain her, but she was borne away 
to a mountain. Here her father found her, and took her by the hair, 

1 One should take into account, however, the fact that both Pope 
Gregory, and S. Augustine, and S. Paulinus, and S. Wilfrid were all in 
one way or other connected with the Benedictine monastery of S. Andrew 
on the Cselian Hill at Rome. 

2 On Ranworth screen (147) and in an alabaster tablet in the vestry of S. 
Peter Mancroft, Norwich (7), S. Margaret is seen thrusting her cross-staff 
into the mouth of a dragon. At Westminster (121) the cross at the top of her 
staff has been broken off. On an ivory in the British Museum she is seen 
emerging from the middle of a dragon's back. 



and drew her back to the town 
and delivered her to the judge. 
Next day and many days she 
was beaten and tortured ; at 
last her father slew her with 
his own hand. Whereon fire 
from heaven descended on 
him, and consumed him in 
such wise that there could not 
be found any ashes of all his 
whole body. 

Hence she is repre- 
sented as the protectress 
from thunderbolts and 
lightning, and, by an exten- 
sion, from explosions by 
cannon or musketry, and 
may be seen depicted in 
company with armour and 
field-pieces. In Italian men- 
of-war it is common to call 
the stoke-hole The Santa 
Barbara. Six churches . in. 
Norfolk contain ancient 
glass in which she is de- 
picted. She appears near 
a tower or carrying a 
tower on four Norfolk rood- 
screens ; sometimes she 
holds the palm of victory ; 
or, in Germany, she holds a 
feather, because the rods 
with which she was beaten 
were turned into feathers. 1 

Trie legend of S. George, 

- l At Westminster S. Barbara 
carries her tower in her left hand, 
and an open book in her right 
(144). She also carries a tower 
in an alabaster tablet in. the vestry 
of S. Peter Mancroft, Norwich 
(7), In an illumination S, 
Barbara is shown crowned, with 
palm and tower, and trampling 
on her father (22). 

S. Barbara. 
Rood-screen, Ranworth, 


S, George. 
Ran worth Rood-screen. 


the dragon, and the rescued princess looks like a derivative 

from the Greek story of Perseus and Andromache: 1 and 

itself has had many imitators, such as the tale of Moor of 

Moorhall, " who slew the dragon of Wantley," and that of 

the Knight of Lambton, "John that slew the Worme." S. 

George is said to have been a tribune in Cappadocia ; and 

coming to Libya, he found a town, 

Silene, assailed by a pestilential dragon, 

to whom the townsfolk paid quit-money 

till they had spent on it all their beasts, 

and their sheep, and their sons, and their 

daughters ; last of all the lot fell upon 

the king's daughter. But as she wended 

out of the city, S. George came forth 

and said, " Fear nothing ; in the name of 

Jesus Christ I will be of aid/' And the 

dragon arose- from out the water. But 

S. George made the sign of the cross, 

and with his lance pierced through the 

dragon and cast it to the ground, and 

bade the princess put her girdle round 

the monster. Which done, the dragon 

followed like a dog. And when they 

had brought it into the town, the folk 

feared and marvelled, and S. George 

struck off the dragon's head. 2 

S. George was identified by the 
historian Gibbon with a rascally army 
contractor of Cappadocia ; but it is 
pretty certain that the saint is of earlier 
date than the contractor. The^popu- 
larity of S. George in England was of 
comparatively late date. Historical 
reason is given for it It is said that he 
appeared at the head of a large army, 
carrying a red cross banner, to help 
Godfrey de Bouillon against the Saracens 
at the siege of Antioch, 

1 See E. S. Hartland, The Legend of Perseus^ vol. iii. 38. London, 

2 At Ran worth S. George with uplifted sword is about to slay the dragon 
on which he stands (150). On the grille in Henry the Seventh's chapel, 
Westminster, he has helmet, shield, sword, and plate armour (151). On the 
tomb he is shown as a Roman soldier with banner and sword (broken) ; 
below is the dragon (153). 

S, George. 



" A bloodie Crosse he bore, 
The deare remembraunce of his dying Lord." 

Moreover, King Richard Coeur de Lion had a vision, bidding 
him to take for his battle-cry next day, " S. George for England" 
This he did, and won the day ; and S. George became the patron 
saint of Richard and his family and his soldiers. Under 
Edward III. he became the patron of the Order of the Garter, 
for the knights of which a magnificent chapel, dedicated to 
S. George, was built at Windsor by Edward IV. and Henry VII. 
It was under the flag of S. George a red cross on a white field 
that Nelson won the battle of the Nile. And the Union Jack 
(which, by the way, we owe to Oliver Cromwell) consists of a 
combination of S. George's red cross, the cross saltire of 
S. Andrew of Scotland, and the white cross of S. Patrick of 
Ireland. 1 

This is what the clerks used to sing according to Sarum use 
on S. George's Day, till the Missals and Breviaries were reformed 
by Pope Clement VII. and the reference to the dragon cut out 2 

O Georgi martyr inclyte 
Te decet laus et gloria, 
Predotatum militia ; 
Per quern puella regia, 
Existens in tristitia, 
Coram dracone pessimo 
Salvata est. Ex ammo 
Te rogamus corde intimo 
Ut cunctis cum fidelibus 
Coeli jungamur civibus 
Nostris ablatis sordibus ; 
Et simul cum ketitia 
Tecum simus in gloria ; 
Nostraque reddant labia 
Laudes Chris to cum gratia : 
Cui sit honos in secula. 

Henceforth, as Spenser says, S, George was to be saint of 

" Thou, among those saints which thou doest see, 
Shalt be a saint, and thine own nation's friend 
And patron ; thou Saint George shalt called be, 
Saint George of merry England, the sign of victory." 

1 Charles Browne, /<&*#., 287. 

2 Baring- Gould's Curious Myths of the Middle Ages, 296. 



At S. Neots, Cornwall, is the whole life of S. George in twelve 
panels of stained glass, beneath each of which is a Latin scroll, 
(i) S- George fights against the Gauls. (2) He is captured by 
them and slain at the shrine of the Blessed Virgin ; who (3) 
brings him to life from the grave, and (4) arms him. (5) He 
rescues Princess Clcodolinda and slays the dragon. (6) He is 
arrested for treason and brought before the king. (7) His body 

SS. George and Antony. Westminster. 

is torn with rakes. (8) On hands and knees he is ridden by the 
emperor's son. (9) He is heavily weighted and hung up by the 
wrists. (TO) He is set in boiling lead, (u) He is dragged by 
a wild horse. (12) He is beheaded. 1 

Of the Fathers of the Church, S, Clement of Rome is the 
most popular : not that he was regarded as a theologian superior 
to Augustine, 2 or Jerome, or Chrysostom, or Athanasius, but 

1 Nelson's Painted Glass^ 63. 

3 In an illumination S. Augustine holds in his band a heart (15). On the 
Ashton screen he holds a book (267). 


simply that there were better stories in circulation about him. 
S. Clement is made to go on mission to the Crimea ; there, by 
orders of Trajan, he is thrown into the sea with an anchor round 
his neck ; every year on the day of his martyrdom the sea 
recedes two miles, and there appears a stone shrine " not made 
by mortal hands." On the weathercock of S. Clement Danes in 
the Strand is an anchor. 1 

The vast popularity of S. Andrew he stands fifth on the 
list of dedications is mainly due to the History of the Mar 
Matthew and Mar Andrew, the blessed Apostles, when they 
converted the City of Dogs^ the inhabitants of which were 
cannibals. The author of this "history" was Leucius Charinus ; 
and though this outrageous legend was declared heretical by 
Pope Gelasius so early as the fifth century, it had gripped 
Christendom, and in England alone S. Andrew obtained 637 
dedications. The story goes that after the gift of tongues at the 
feast of Pentecost, the apostles drew lots to decide the places to 
which each should go on mission. It fell to the lot of S. Matthew 
that he should go on mission to Wrondon, or the City of 
Dogs, whither he departed. - There he was cast into prison 
and sentenced to be executed at the expiration of thirty days. 
During his imprisonment the Lord Christ appeared to him, and 
promised to send S. Andrew to his succour. Twenty-seven days 
afterwards Our Lord called S. Andrew and his companions and 
took him away in a ship, the crew whereof consisted of Christ 
Himself and two angels. In the course of the voyage the 
apostle and his companions sink into a deep sleep, and in a 
vision the Garden of Paradise appears to them. They land at 
Wrondon and proceed to the prison, where the jailers fall dead. 
S. Matthew 2 and the other prisoners are liberated, and are in- 
continently translated to a mountain where S. Peter awaits them. 
Meanwhile in the city the escape of the prisoners is discovered, 
and lots are cast to find the guilty person, who is to be eaten for 
food. But instead of the victim his son and daughter are 
substituted, and are led off to the place of execution. Here, 
however, S. Andrew meets them, and by exercise of prayer 
prevents the sacrifice. The apostle is then denounced by the 

1 On the rood-screen at Ashton, Devon, S. Clement wears the papal triple 
tiara, and holds a double cross and anchor in one hand and in the other a 
closed book (140). In the Lubeck Passionate S. Clement has the papal triple 
tiara and double cross ; and holds in his left hand an anchor (15). 

2 In the statue at Westminster S. Matthew wears spectacles ; an angel 
holds up his gospel in one hand and an inkhorn in the other (155). On 
the Ran worth screen S. Matthew holds the sword by which he was slain 



devil, and is arrested and 
put to the torture. There- 
upon he lifts his eyes to 
heaven and sees " large trees 
which had grown up and 
borne fruit," which are pieces 
of flesh torn from his body. 
The same night his wounds 
are healed ; the city is inun- 
dated. S. Andrew, however, 
escapes; the flood ceases, and 
the dead are restored to life ; 
but the father of the two 
victims and the executioner 
are swallowed up alive. These 
doings convert the citizens, 
and they build a church. 
The visit of S. Matthew and 
S. Andrew to Wrondon is 
depicted in ten panels of 
stained glass in a window 
at Greystoke, Cumberland, 
which is dated 15 2O. 1 

Many of the legends, no 
doubt, owed their popularity 
to the fact that there was 
something in them that made 
its appeal at once, and, once 
heard, was always remem- 
bered. A famous legend is 
that of the legion or brigade 
of Christian soldiers under 
the command of Mauritius, 
which in the third century 
refused either to join in 
Pagan sacrifices or to be 
led against the Christians of 
Gaul. The legion was de- 
cimated a first time, and yet 
again. A third time Mauritius 
was ordered by the Emperor 

1 See Nelson's Painted Glass, 
67, from which the legend is 

S. Matthew. 


Maximin to obey, and a third time he refused. O Casar," said 
he, " we are thy soldiers, but we are also soldiers of Jesus Christ. 
We are ready to follow thee against barbarians, but we will die 
rather than fight against our brethren." Whereupon a general 
massacre of the whole legion took place. This legend ^is so 
ancient and is so widely distributed that it doubtless has a historic 
basis. Another favourite story in England was that of the yoke 
of oxen that dragged the Holy Cross all the way from the West 
of England, but no further than Waltham in Essex would they 
go ; and thus resulted the great abbey church of Holy Cross, of 
which the twelfth-century nave still survives. Such are the 
stories of S. Denis I and S. Osyth, carrying their heads in their 
hands; that of the stag and crucifix which appeared to S. 
Eustachius, and again to S. Hubert. 2 

More especially was this so if the saint was associated in 
legend with some special emblem. Each time folk saw a 
carpenter's rule they were reminded of the apostle S. Thomas ; 
a flight of arrows reminded them of S. Sebastian, and of 
Edmund, king and martyr; a comb reminded them of S. 
Blaise ; a wheel, of S. Catherine ; a gridiron, of S. Lawrence, 3 or 
S. Vincent ; a pig, of S. Anthony ; a goose, of SS. Martin and 
Werburga ; a swan, of S. Hugh ; a horse shoe, of S.^ Eloy. 4 
Each one of these provided a " memoria technical" keeping the 
story from being forgotten. 

Some of the stories were decidedly humorous the humour, 
perhaps, of the type of the farmers' " ordinary " ; such as that 
masterpiece of mediaeval wit, the temptation of S. Dunstan by 
the devil in the form of a beautiful girl, whom the saint put to 
flight by seizing him by the nose with red-hot pincers. 

1 On the rood-screen at Kenn, Devon, S. Hubert is shown as a hunter 
(177). In a wooden statuette in the possession of Dr Philip Nelson, he has 
become a mitred abbot and is vested in a cope fastened with a large morse 
or brooch (178). In a painting by Wilhem, S. Hubert holds a model of a stag 
on a closed book (15). 

2 On a rood-screen at Grafton Regis, S. Denis is shown bearing his head 

in his hands (13). 

3 In the east window of Ludlow, Salop, which is dedicated to S. 
Lawrence, is glass (c. 1445) illustrating the life of S. Lawrence, the patron 
saint of the church. There are twenty-seven panels in three tiers. For full 
account of these see Nelson's Painted Glass, 176. 

4 In a boss of the vaulted porch of Ugborough church, Devon, S. Eloy 
is represented hammering a horse shoe on an anvil. At Westminster he 
holds a horse shoe in his right hand (87). In German glass at Stoke Pogis 
he is in plate armour, with a lion at his feet and a sword in his right hand ; 
in his left he holds a hammer and an anvil. 


Here is a slightly different version of the legend : 

" The Divell appearing to him on a time in the likenesse of a yong 
and beautifull woman tempting him to uncleanesse, he tooke up a 
paire of pinchers that then lay by him, and caught the foule beaste by 
the upper lippe, and soe holding him fast and leading him up and 
down his chamber, after divers interrogatories drave him away." 

Very famous too were the temptations of S. Anthony, a 
hermit in the Egyptian desert in the fourth century, in whose 
cell the demons spread a table covered with delicious viands, and 
hovered round in the shape of lovely women, who with softest 

E. K. y, 

S, Dunstan. 

Boss in Exeter Cathedral. 

blandishments allured him to sin. Well-known pictures of the 
scene were executed by Salvator Rosa, Ribera, Annibal Caracci, 
and Teniers, who painted it twelve times. Gluttony is one of 
the vices which S. Anthony subdued by abstinence and 
austerities ; it may be symbolised by a black pig at his feet. The 
monks of the order. of S. Anthony kept droves of pigs, which 
were regarded as sacred, and were allowed to feed where they 
would. On this they grew fat ; hence the proverb of the fatness 
of a " Tantony pig." 

Another item that greatly affected the popularity of a saint 
was the frequency of the evil against which the saint was specific. 
Most of us, one time or other, have toothache ; hence the some- 


D. W. 

S. Erasmus. S. Edmund, K.M. 

Henry the Seventh's Chapel, Westminster. 



what obscure saint, Apollonia, was in great request. 1 A more 
serious pest, the plague, raged horribly in the Middle Ages; 
hence the popularity of S. Roch, pointing to the plague-spot on 

Alabaster panel in Society of Antiquaries. 

his thigh. Mortal danger at childbirth sent every .mother to 
intercession of S. Margaret. Life assurance for one day was 
the bid for popularity made by S. Christopher. And so with 

3 On the screen at Ashton, Devon, she holds a tooth in a pair of pincers 



Some again owed their popularity in part to the fact that 
they lent themselves readily to representation in art. 

S. Erasmus was in great vogue in England in late days. 
His image is known to have been present in at least eleven " 
churches in the mediaeval diocese of Rochester. He appears in 

S. Sebastian. Westminster. 

stained glass in Lullingstone church, Kent ; and a small chapel 
is dedicated to him in Westminster abbey. He is a somewhat 
apocryphal saint ; but the gory subject of his martyrdom made 
him a favourite in stained glass, wherein his bowels are shown 
being drawn out by a windlass, or coiled round it 1 

1 In glass at Sandrmgham, S. Erasmus is shown as a bishop in eucharistic 
vestments ; he holds a windlass ; the bowels are not shown (15). Sometimes 
the martyr is prostrate, and the windlass is horizontal above. In the 


S. Sebastian has but two dedications ; but the manner of 
his martyrdom made him a good subject for the painter. 

Here is /Elfric's description of the martyrdom of S. 
Sebastian : 1 

" Then the soldiers led away the servant of Christ, 
And set him for a mark, even as Diocletian commanded, 
And fastened their arrows into him before and behind, 
As thickly on every side as a hedgehog's bristles, 
And so left him alone, lying for dead." 

In the martyrdom of S. Sebastian the saint is usually shown 
naked, shot at by two or three archers, sometimes with cross- 
bows : whereas S. Edmund is generally represented in royal 
dress, and archers may be shown, as at Ely, or the king may 
merely hold an arrow or sheaf of arrows. 

Other subjects "telling" in wall painting, carving, stained 
glass, and rood-screens were S. Michael weighing souls (35), 
S. Christopher and the Child (168), and Cecily playing on a harp 
or an organ, or what in a Devon screen looks like a lute. 2 On 
the other hand, the story of S. Lucy was ineffective owing to the 
minute size in the representation of the eyes on a platter which 
she bore in her hand. Those subjects which were seen most 
frequently in church windows, over doorways, and on walls 
naturally were best remembered. 

But the most important factor yet remains. This was the 
influence of literature. We must not imagine that the old folks 
had no literature. There were plenty of religious biographies, 
and marvellous stories of all birds and beasts and fishes. And 
just as now an interesting biography popularises its hero, while 
a dull one sinks him in oblivion, so it was then. The more 
romantic the biography, and the better written, the more popular 
the saint Hence, among other things, the enormous popularity 
of S. Martin of Tours ; though he is not an Englishman, he has 
173 dedications in England. His biography was written in his 
lifetime, and in a short time Rome and Egypt and Carthage 

alabaster plaque illustrated, a judge or notary holds a scroll, and Diocletian, 
holding a falchion, sits cross-legged on a seat, with one foot on the saint. 
Round the feet of the latter is a rope which is hauled taut by a man below 
(159). Very similar tablets are to be seen in Norwich castle museum, and in 
the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford (158). 

* Homily V., 4*4- 

2 In stained glass at Combs, Suffolk, S. Cecilia is about to be placed m a 
cauldron of boiling oil, her persecutor, Almachius, standing near ; in another 
fragment she is chained to the city gate, and is about to be slain by a soldier 
with a sword (Nelson's Painted Glass^ 191). 

1 62 


w. s. w. 

. S. Martin. 

were full of it ; the book- 
sellers at Rome were at their 
wits' end to meet the de- 
mand ; S. Martin was mobbed 
at Tours by tourists ; and the 
happy biographer had to 
bring out a sequel with more 
miracles than ever. Few 
saints had so many stories, 
and such good ones, told of 
them as had S. Martin. S. 
Nicholas runs him hard. If 
anyone will turn to William 
Caxton's translation of the 
Golden Legend, he will have a 
full afternoon's reading, and 
a pleasant one, over the lives 
of these two saints. Such 
books were to the mediaeval 
clerk what the Gentlemen of 
France and Treasure Island 
. are to us. This more than 
anything else is the root and 
origin of the popularity of 
many of the saints. While 
alive they were at any rate 
some of them inconspicuous 
persons ; e.g., Bishop Blaise, 
Bishop Nicholas, Bishop 
Erasmus; they became con- 
spicuous and famous because 
they fell into the hands of a 
first-rate novelist. It may be 
urged that the common folk, 
being illiterate, could not 
have been influenced by liter- 
ature. But this is to ignore 
two considerations. The first 
thing is that such" important 
things as church dedications 
were not settled by the com- 
mon folk, but by -learned 
clerks, who could all more 
or less read Latin. The 
second is that the clerks 


made for the use of the people selections, Legenda, from the 
legends of the saints, which were read aloud to the people on 
the -feast day of each saint ; and it by no means follows that the 
Legenda were always read to them in Latin; there were numer- 
ous translations in the vernaculars. 

As with SS. Martin and Nicholas, so the story of S. 

W, E. W. 

S. Catherine of Alexandria. 
Percy Tomb, Beverley Minster. 

Catherine of Alexandria was polished by generations of Greek 
romancers; hence she has 62 dedications. Unfortunately, she 
is reputed to have died in 307, and the first mention of her in 
history or legend does not occur till five centuries later. The 
'legend appears to be a compound of the stories of two saints, 
one of Alexandria, the other of Mount Sinai. Alexandria was 
famous for learned women, such as Hypatia; among them was 
the Princess Catherine, who was as beautiful and pious as she 



S. Catherine of Alexandria, 

was learned. She spurned all 
marriage -except with the Spouse 
of the Church, and defended her 
principles against all the philo- 
sophers of the day with the wicked 
Roman emperor acting as assessor. 
So eloquent and so interminable 
was her discourse that the exas- 
perated emperor ordered her to 
execution, bound to spiked wheels 
which should tear her flesh to 
pieces. The wheels, however, 
broke, and she was put to the 
sword. 1 (Hence she is represented 
sometimes with a sword in her 
hand, sometimes with a wheel at 
her feet, and trampling on Maxen- 
tius, as in her statue in Henry the 
Seventh's chapel, Westminster. 2 ) 

1 Execution by the sword here, as 
often, seems an anticlimax. Thus S. 
Clement of Ancyra, after enduring tortures 
which were prolonged over twenty-eight 
years, and which it would take a whole 
page to enumerate, after all had his head 
struck off by the sword. Decapitation by 
the sword was the normal punishment, 
and it is likely enough that in the legend 
of many a martyr all the previous tor- 
lures enumerated by the chronicler are 
but customary rhetorical embellishments. 

2 In a cusp of the Percy tomb in 
Beverley minster (163) and in glass at 
West Wickham, Kent, S. Catherine is 
crowned and tramples on the Emperor 
Maximin : by her side is a spiked wheel, 
and she bears the sword of martyrdom 
(22). She is seen also in a bench end at 
Coombe-in-Teignhead with crown, sword 
and wheel (118). In the tracing from glass 
in Castle Howard, which was made by 
Mr William Fowler of Winterton and for 
which the writer is indebted to his son, 
Rev. J. T. Fowler, D.C.L., the execu- 
tioner holds S. Catherine by the hair 

i6 S 

ItHSSSf?,')-' ' -^Sr^^SSS^. - ' - .^-jv 

Execution of S. Catherine, 
Stained glass at Castle Howard. 

1 66 


Then angels took up the dead body and bore it over the desert 
and over the Red Sea to the summit of Mount Sinai, where was 
founded the famous convent of S. Catherine, in which was found 
the Sinattic codex of -the New Testament. Because of her 
scholastic victory over Maxentius and his heathen philosophers 
she is patron saint of schools. S. Catherine has 62 dedications, 
and has imprinted her name on S. Catherine Downs and S. 

J. H. P. 

S. Christopher. 
From a MS. in the Bodleian Library. 

Catherine's Point, in the Isle of Wight, a S. Catherine's Hill near 
Winchester, and another near Christchurch, Hants. The : c Cat and 
Wheel " is a public-house sign. In the nave of York minster the 
first window from the east end of the north aisle contains 
representations of the martyrdom of S. Catherine ; the glass is 
c. 1306. (i) She appears before the Emperor Maximin, who is 

with his right hand ; in his left is a sword. Below kneel the donors of the 
glass (165). In the Ludlow window;S. Catherine has sword and wheel (164). 
In the group at Norwich she has sword only (7). . 


seated on a throne, with a devil perched on his shoulder. (2) She 
argues with the philosophers. (3) Being confuted, they are 
executed by Maximin's order. (4) She is visited in prison by 
the Empress Porphyry, whom she converts. (5) She is bound to 
spiked wheels, which are shattered by two angels, armed with 
swords. (6) She is beheaded and angels bear her soul to heaven. 
Other scenes are depicted in the tracery of the window. 1 

One of the most popular collections of stories was the 
thirteenth - century Golden Legend, which contained among 
others the story of S. Christopher, who was reputed to have 
suffered martyrdom in the third century. 

The whole story may well have grown out of the etymology of the 
Greek word "Christopher," which signifies "Christ-bearer." In the 
old days hermits often stationed themselves by the banks of rivers, 
hoping to find favour with heaven by guiding travellers across perilous 
fords. One day there came to one of these hermits a big heathen 
giant, who wanted to be useful somehow, but did not know how. The 
hermit set him to help travellers across the river; and this he did for 
many years, supporting his steps by a knotted bough plucked from a 
tree. But one dark and stormy night he heard cries, and there was a 
little child begging to be put across. So he put the child on his 
shoulder and strode into the river. The wind blew and the rain fell, 
and the stream beat against him, and the child grew heavier and 
heavier, so that the giant could hardly keep his footing, and the weight 
on his shoulders was almost more than he could bear. And he looked 
up at the child, and the child said to him, " Heavy is the burden 
because thou earnest Him who bears the sins of the world." And 
then the giant knew that it was the Child Jesus. And when they came 
to the other bank, he fell down and did homage, and took Him for his 
master all the_days of his life. 2 

It was believed that whosoever saw S. Christopher and the 
Child, on that day should be neither sick nor sorry, nor on that 
day meet death. There was not a church in England but had 
an image 3 of S. Christopher or else a wall painting. The usual 
entrance to a parish church was by the south door; facing this 
on the north wall of the nave, was commonly a gigantic representa- 
tion of S. Christopher and the Child. We have nine ancient 

1 Nelson's Painted Glass> 246. 

2 In an illumination fish are shown swimming" in the river, and a hermit 
with a lantern on the further bank pointfs out the ford ; above is his cell (i 66). 
It was said also that the staff by which S. Christopher supported his steps 
broke forth into leafage, as is shown in stained glass at All Saints', North 
Street, York (168). 

3 One remains at Terrington S, Clement's, Norfolk, and is illustrated in 
the writer's Introduction to English Church Architecture^ p. 49. 



U, L, 

S, Christopher and the Child, 
All Saints', York. 


churches and chapels, and seven ancient bells dedicated to 
S. Christopher. At Shapwick, Dorset, is a bell with the 
inscription : 


*>., " Whoever looks on S. Christopher's bell, on that day shall 
be neither sick nor sorry." This is taken from an old Latin 
hymn, which, however, reads SPECIEM, "face," for which 
CAMPANAM has been substituted to the ruin of metre and 
sense. 1 Another version reads : 


/.*., " If thou, whoever thou art, lookest on S. Christopher's face, 
On that day thou shall not die an evil death." 

Another version is in the form of a pentameter : 

i.e., " Behold Christopher ; then shalt thou be safe." 

Doubtless many another saint, e.g., S, Perpetua, equally deserved 
honour ; just as 

" Vixere fortes ante Agamemnona 

Multi ; sed omnes illacrimabiles 
Urguentur ignotique longa 

Nocte, carent quia vate sacro." 

Many a story is in praise of virginity, and in deprecation of 
the married state. For centuries the Church had the greatest 
difficulty in enforcing celibacy on the clergy ; and regarded with 
favour every story of virginal purity. Sometimes the maiden 
flies from the passion of a wicked man, as do S, Frideswide of 
Oxford, S. Agatha of Sicily, S. Winifred of Holywell. Some- 
times the suitor is unexceptionable in birth and morals ; which 
make his repulse all the more creditable to the maid ; e.g., 
S. Lucy of Syracuse, S. Margaret of Antioch, and S. Agnes of 
Rome ; sometimes the story of the maid, e.g., of S. Catherine, is 
a protest against marriage with anybody, good or bad. If 
married already, then the saint runs away from her husband 
with the general approval of everybody, e.g., S. Etheldreda of 
Ely and S. Osyth, If she does not run away, then husband and 
wife live in virginal continence, like Valerian and Cecilia. S. 
Bridget of Ireland was so beautiful that all men desired her, and 

1 Walters' Church Bells of England, p. 288. 


she prayed that her beauty might pass from her. So a distemper 
fell upon her, and she lost an eye and became unsightly. But 
when she received the veil, the lost eye and her former beauty 
returned to her. 

Other tales tell of the good mother teaching her little girl," 
as S. Anne taught Our Lady ; or of that Christian mother of 
Autun who cried out from the city wall to her son, S. 
Symphonan, as he was being led away to execution, " Fear not 
the death which leads to certain life." Mothers liked stories 
about good little children, and were not likely to allow to pass 
out of remembrance S. Pancras of Rome, 1 and three-year-old 
S. Cyril, and S. Kenelm singing the Te Deum till the murderer's 
blow struck off his head. 2 Precocious saintliness made the 
closest appeal of all. There are 8 dedications to S. Rumbald, 
who as soon as he was born said three times in a firm voice, " I 
am a Christian." Then he demanded baptism ; and being 
baptized, preached a sermon, and in due course of nature died 
three days after. In j3LJ3n^vras^pi^y in 

"stood iipJn his 
gave {baaksjthat it had 

Moreover, from the first he observed the fasts of the 
Church, only taking the breast once on Wednesdays and 
Saturdays. And folks loved not only children but lovers of 
children. When the annual whipping-day came round, the 
boys of the King's School, Canterbury, resorted for aid to 
the tomb of S. Dunstan in the cathedral, and he kindly sent a 
deep sleep upon the masters. 3 

But the patron saint of children was and is S. Nicholas. He 
was born at Panthera, a city of Lycia in Asia Minor, in the 
third century, the son of rich Christian parents. 

1 Of S. Pancras it was said by Gregory of Turone, Doctor, that if there 
be a man that make a false oath in the place of S. Pancras' sepulchre, he 
shall be travailed with an evil spirit and out of his mind, or he shall fall on 
the pavement all dead. On the brass at Cowfold S. Pancras is shown 
trampling on a Saracen (113). 

2 In the west front of Wells cathedral, S. Kenelm is represented as young 
and beardless, and tramples on a woman prostrate over a book. He had 
been left in charge of his sister, Quendrida, who had him murdered. At his 
funeral she was reading the Psalter backward as a charm, when her eyes 
dropped out and stained the book with blood at the words, "This is the evil 
of them that defame to the Lord, who speak evil against my soul." The 
bloodstains, says William of Malmesbury, are still to be seen on the Psalter. 
W.R. L-(u). 

3 Arnold-Forster, i. 329. 



While still young, he inherited great wealth from his parents.. Now 
it happened that in that city there was a nobleman with three daughters, 
so poor that he was about to send them forth to earn their bread by 

J. H. P. 

S. Dunstan at the feet of Christ 

Facsimile from an Anglo-Saxon manuscript in the Bodleian Library, 
said to have been drawn by the hand of the saint himself. 

a life of shame. But one night Nicholas threw a purse of gold through 
the window, and with this dowry the poor nobleman married the 



eldest daughter. A second night 
Nicholas threw through a purse 
of gold, and with this the second 
daughter was downed and mar- 
ried. So also with the third 
daughter. S. Nicholas is repre- 
sented with the three purses on 
the font in Winchester cathedral. 1 

Again, during a great famine 
at Myra, three children were kid- 
napped and set before the guests 
as meat. One of the guests was 
S. Nicholas himself, who hurried 
to the cellar and found in the 
pickling cask the dismembered 
limbs of three children. He 
made the sign of the cross, and 
the three boys stepped out of 
the cask hale and whole. This 
scene also is depicted on the 
font in Winchester cathedral. 

Also there was a rich man 
who vowed a great cup to the 
altar of S. Nicholas in gratitude 
for the birth of a son and heir. 
But the cup was so beautiful 
that he gave a smaller one, and 
kept the big gold cup for him- 
self. One day later, journeying 
with his son, he bade him fill 
the big cup with water. But the 
boy, overbalancing, fell in and 
was drowned. Then the father 
returned and gave to the altar a 
silver cup, but it fell off, and this 
happened a second and a third 
time. And while all were amazed, 
the rich man's son appeared 
himself, safe and sound, for good 
S. Nicholas had saved him. And 
the father gave both cups to 
the altar, and returned home 
with his son. This scene is 
represented on the font at Ledel- 

S. Nicholas. 

1 Illustrated in the writer's Fonts 
and Font Covers ^ 169. 



He is also the patron saint of wolves and Russians. From 
sunset on the sixth of December, S. Nicholas' Day, to sunrise 
next morning, the wolves will not touch even chicken ; they 
spend the night in meditation, and will not hurt you even if you 
step upon their tails. And he is the protector of sailors, and is 
the patron of many a church by the sea, e.g., at Brighton and 
Great Yarmouth. 

Many stories are told of his powers over the sea. One day 
certain mariners in the ^gean called on his intercession to save 
them from the stormy sea, and S. Nicholas appeared and calmed 
the sea, and with lighted taper in hand, steered the ship to 
port. No wonder that Nich- 
olas, Archbishop of Myra, 
has 437 dedications. 1 

Another virtue, appreci- 
ated far more then than now, 
simply because nowadays we 
have seldom opportunity to 
exhibit it, was kindness to 
captives. The petition in the 
Litany that it may please 
God to "show pity upon 
all prisoners and captives," 
means little to us, but it had 
a terrible meaning in the 
Middle Ages, when the Vik- 
ings and the Saracens and 
the galleys of Algiers were 
at sea, and every jail was a 
deadly pesthouse. S. Cyprian 

of Carthage, to aid a fund The Confessor. Westminster, 

for the ransom of captives 

in the hands of the Berbers, sold all that he had, even his 
beautiful gardens, though his friends bought them in and restored 
them to him. But the great patron of prisoners and captives 

1 In Henry the Seventh's chapel, S. Nicholas is a short stout bishop 
holding a boy in a basket (172). In an illumination he is shown as a bishop 
in the act of benediction ; near are three boys in a tub (26). In a lancet 
window beneath the "Bishop's Eye" in Lincoln minster, the second window 
from the east, is a ship at sea beneath clouds. In the ship are two sailors, 
one of whom holds an oar and a vase of oil ; on the shore stands' S. Nicholas 
in vestments and mitre ; in one hand he holds his crosier, while with the 
other he draws the ship to land by a rope attached to its sail (Nelson's 
Painted Glass^ 139). 


was the hermit, S. Leonard, the Howard of the sixth century. 
To him prayed the captives and the captives' friends ; and in 
many a church of S. Leonard fetters hung up in grateful remem- 
brance of release by his ''ntercessionary power. He has 177 
dedications in this country. 1 

One must recollect, too, that there was no system of relief 
organised by poor laws, and that generosity to poor folk was far 
more incumbent than it is now, and held a much higher position 
among the social virtues. S. Benedict's directions were, " All 
the guests who come to us shall be received as the Lord Himself, 
for one day He will say, ' I was a stranger and ye took me in. J 
And when the guests are poor, Christ is more especially received in 
their persons?* The story of S. Martin of Tours dividing his 
cloak with the beggar is one which the mediaeval world was not 
likely to let die. There was the famous story, too, of the 
Confessor and the ring and S. John Evangelist. 

One day the Confessor was returning from mass in the Abbey, when 
in a certain street of Westminster a beggar asked for alms, and the 
king drew the ring from his finger and gave it to him. Four and twenty 
years after two pilgrims in India, from Ludlow, met " an old man, white 
and hoary and joyously like unto a clerk," also in pilgrim's dress ; who, 
when he found that they were Englishmen, admonished them that they 
should journey to King Edward, and should take the ring and say from 
me to him, This is the ring that thou didst give me in a certain street 
in Westminster, and I am John Evangelist. Six months from this day 
shalt thou quit the world and shalt abide with me for ever." And the 
two pilgrims went to their own country, and expounded these things 
to King Edward in his palace of Havering-atte-Bower, and gave the 
ring to him. And the king set forth to order his passing. 

Evidence for these things is that in the great collegiate church 
of Ludlow, founded by the Confessor, the stained glass in the 
chapel of S. John Evangelist depicts the story of the Ring. 
Also the name of " Havering " is held to be a corruption of 
" Have a ring." 

Nor did people forget that Our Lord went about healing the 
sick, and was at least as ready to relieve their bodies as their 
souls. Of all his pastoral duties, what S. John of Beverley liked 
best was to nurse and tend the sick. Julian the Hospitaller and 
his wife Basilissa, on their wedding night, consecrated their lives 
to the service of God and man ; their house they turned into a 

1 In stained glass at Sandringham, S. Leonard has fetters and an open 
book (15). 

3 On the rood-screen at Great Plumstead, Norfolk, S. Benedict has his 
crosier in his left hand and a scroll in his right (68). 


hospital, and all their wedded life 
they spent in ministering to the 
sick and the lepers, till came the 
martyr's crown. It is told of S. 
Elizabeth of Hungary that she 
laid in her bed a foul leper whom 
no one would tend any longer. 
The indignant duke, her husband, 
tore off the bedclothes, when " at 
that instant God Almighty opened 
the eyes of his soul, and instead 
of the leper he saw on the bed the 
figure of Christ Crucified." An- 
other day when he met her, she 
had a heavy basket of food she 
was carrying to the poor. She 
was ashamed when he asked her 
what she was carrying ; but when 
he insisted on looking in, there 
was nothing inside but red and 
white roses. 

A very popular saint was S. 

This is William Caxton's version of 
his story, translated from the Golden 
Legend. " Now this Roch was ever in 
great study how he might in the name 
of Jhesu and His passion deliver 
mortal men from the hurt of pesti- 
lence. And so a whole year he visited 
the houses of poor men at Placentia, 
and they that had most need, to them 
he did most help, and was always in 
thospytal. And anon he was himself 
sore taken with the pestilence under 
his both arms. And he went forth 
from the city into a certain wood. 
And there he was an hungered, and 
every day a hound brought him bread 
from his master's board. Then said 
the master, 'Since this hound without 
reason bringeth him bread, I sooner 
ought to do it which am a Christian 
man. 7 And long he and Roch lived 
in the woods.; and the wild beasts 
which wandered in the woods, what 


W, S. W. 

S. Roch. 


hurt, swelling, or sickness they had, they ran anon to S. Roch, and 
when they were healed, they would incline their heads reverently and 
go away." l 

The martyrs Cosmas and Damian were especially popular 
physicians because they worked without fee or reward, and 
tended the dumb beasts as well as their fellow- men. They are 
patron saints of Bean and Challock, Kent, and Keymer, Sussex, 
and, originally, of Stretford, Hereford. 

Again our forefathers were but few of them town folk, and if 
they were, the town was small and the country near, and they 
liked stories about country life and the animals they saw in the 
farmyard and the woods. And there were many stories, especi- 
ally of the hermits and of their power over the wild creatures, 
who from constant familiarity with their gentle ways had lost all 
shyness and fear. It was perhaps natural that they should ; but 
it was believed by the country folk that the friendship of the 
creatures was of supernatural character. This the hermits 
believed themselves. One day a visitor found S. Guthlac of 
Crowland discoursing with two swallows, perched fearlessly on 
his shoulders, and " lifting up their song rejoicing." " Hast thou 
never heard, brother," said Guthlac, " that he who hath led his 
life after God's will, the wild beasts and the wild birds have 
become the more intimate with him?" S. Blaise fled from 
persecution to the woods and caves, and won the love of all the 
wild creatures and brought them submissive to his will. 

S. Giles (162 dedications) is a hermit of most uncertain date ; 
he lived in the forests of the delta of the Rhone either in the 
sixth or the eighth century. One day a royal hunt wounded a 
hind, which fled to its friend, S. Giles, and put its head on his 
knee for protection. Another version, which is followed on a 
misericord in Ely cathedral, makes the arrow miss the hind and 
hit the hermit. On the misericord the hermit is seen with an 
arrow sticking in his leg; he is telling his beads; and the hind 
is trustingly laying its head on his knee. S. Giles was lame ever 
after, and so became the patron saint of all cripples and, by 
extension, of all beggars. It was common for blacksmiths to 
set up their smithies outside the gates of the mediaeval cities, 
ready to attend to the shoes of travellers' horses and mules. It 
would be convenient for the travellers to hear an early Mass 
while their beasts were being shod ; so near the smithy was 
built a church, e.g^ S. Giles, Oxford, at the junction of the Wood- 

1 In Henry the Seventh's chapel, S. Roch has a pilgrim's staff and 
wallet, a rosary and cross keys on his hat ; he points to a plague-spot on his 
thigh (175). 



stock and Banbury roads ; S. Giles, Cambridge, where three 
roads meet ; S. Giles, Norwich ; S. Giles, Northampton ; S. Giles, 
Cripplegate, London. 1 

The most important memorials of S. Giles are the nave of 
the abbey church of S. Gilles, Provence, world-famous for the 
sculpture of its Romanesque facade, and the picturesque cathedral 
of S. Giles, Edinburgh. 

A great favourite abroad was the story 
of S. Hubert (2 dedications), especially in 
the Ardennes district, where his great 
abbey church still stands. He was a 
mighty hunter, not even sparing stag and 
boar on Good Friday. One day he came 
upon a stag bearing in its antlers a great 
crucifix, from which there was a voice 
bidding him turn to the Lord. The con- 
version of the sinful noble was instan- 
taneous. He resigned his pleasures and 
his sports, and became a priest and after- 
wards a bishop; he died in 727. S. 
Eustace (3 dedications) was a wealthy 
officer in the Roman army, and was 
martyred about 118 A.D. Many centuries 
afterwards a romance was fabricated about 
him, almost identical with the story of S. 
Hubert S. Eustace and S. Hubert are 
the patron saints of huntsmen. 

When S. David of Wales was a little 
boy, learning the Psalms and Lessons and 
the Mass, " a golden-beaked pigeon used 
to play about his lips, teaching him and 
singing the hymns of God." Then there 
is the story of the big swan which was so 
fond of S. Hugh of Lincoln, and followed 
him about everywhere when he was at B.ANDC. 
Stow Park. From the minute description 
given of the bird, it seems to have been a wild swan or hooper. 2 

1 On the screen at Great Pltimstead, Norfolk, an arrow is shown piercing 
the saint's leg, while a hart springs up at his feet (69). In glass at 
Sandringham he holds an abbot's crosier, and a hart springs up at 
his feet (24). 

3 Sir Charles Anderson writes that he has seen a gander, which followed 
a Lincolnshire farmer every day when he went shepherding, waddling along 
with great air of satisfaction, and fondling his legs with neck and bill when 
he stopped (178). 



S, Hubert. 
Wooden statuette. 

A. G. 

S. Hugh. 
S. Mary's Spire, Oxford. 


There were the wild geese which were devastating Weedon, and 
which S. Werburga drove into a stable; next morning they 
came running up to her, begging to be let out. S. Samson of 
Dol could not scare the sparrows from his master's corn, so he 
drove them " like a flock of sheep " into the barn, where " they 
sang mournfully and repented for the damage done to the corn." 
S. Neot kept the crows out of the corn by the simple expedient 
of building a mound round them. Throughout Europe all sorts 
of privileges were given to S. Anthony's pigs, "Tantony pigs." 
When S. Kentigern was seeking where to build a monastery, 
a wild boar trotted through the forest before him, and stopped 
when the fitting site was reached. S. Cuthbert, not to distress 
his hostess, S. Ebba of Coldingham, had partaken of her 
hospitality ; but in penance secretly walked up to his neck in 
the sea. At dawn he was there still, " praising God." When he 
came out, " two otters left the sea, and lying down before him 
on the sand breathed upon his feet and wiped them with their 
hair." 1 And every one knows how Francis of Assisi loved flowers 
and birds and every living thing. We will conclude with a 
quotation from the Little Flowers of 5. Francis of Assisi] 2 is he 
not our namesake? 

"What time Saint Francis abode in the city of Agobio there appeared 
in the country an exceeding great wolf, terrible and fierce, which not 
only devoured the flocks but also men, insomuch that all folk stood in 
great fear. For the which matter, Saint Francis, having compassion on 
the people, wished to go forth unto that wolf, albeit the townsfolk all 
gave counsel against it ; and making the sign of the most holy cross 
he went forth, putting his trust in God. And lo ! the said wolf made at 
Saint Francis with open mouth ; and Saint Francis made over him the 
sign of the most holy cross. Whereas Saint Francis made the sign of 
the cross, right so the terrible wolf shut his jaws and stayed his running, 
and came gently as a lamb and lay him down at the feet of Saint Francis. 
Thereat Saint Francis thus bespake him : * Brother wolf, much harm hast 
thou wrought in these parts and done grievous ill, spoiling and slaying 
the creatures of God ; and hast dared also to slay men made in the 
image of God; for which cause thou art deserving of the gibbet as 
a thief and a most base murderer, and all men cry out and murmur 
against thee. But I would fain, brother wolf, make peace between 
thee and these, so that thou mayest no more offend them, and they 

1 At Westminster S. Cuthbert holds a sceptre in his right hand, and the 
head of S. Oswald in his left (87). There is a similar statue in Prince 
Arthur's chantry chapel in Worcester cathedral. At the bottom of a 
statuette of S, Cuthbert in the possession of Dr Philip Nelson, an otter is 
seen drying the left foot of the saint 

2 Newly translated out of the Italian by T. W. Arnold. Dent, 1907. 





may forgive thee for all thy past offences, and neither men nor dogs 
pursue thee any more.' At these words the wolf with movements of 
body, tail and eyes, and by the bending of his head, gave sign of assent 
of his will to abide thereby. Then spake Saint Francis again : ' Brother 
wolf, sith it pleaseth thee to make this peace, I promise thee that I will 
see to it that the folk of this place give thee food alway so long as thou 
shalt live, so that thou suffer not hunger any more ; for I wot well that 
through hunger hast thou wrought this ill. But sith I win for thee this 
grace, I will, brother wolf, that thou promise me to do none hurt to 
any more, be he man or beast dost promise me this ? ' And the wolf 
by bowing of his head gave clear token that he promised. Then quoth 
Saint Francis : * Brother wolf, I will that thou plight me troth for this 
promise.' And Saint Francis stretching forth his hand to take plight of 
his troth, the wolf lifted up his right paw before him and laid it gently 
on the hand of Saint Francis. Then quoth Saint Francis : 'Brother wolf, 
I bid thee in the name of Jesu Christ come now with me, and let us 
go stablish this peace.' And the wolf set forth with him, in fashion 
as a gentle lamb, whereat the townsfolk made marvel; and all the 
people, men-folk and women-folk, great and small, young and old, gat 
them to the market place to see the wolf. And the folk being gathered 
together. Saint Francis rose up to preach, avizing them how far more 
parlous is the flame of hell, the which must vex the damned eternally, 
than is the fury . of the wolf that can but slay the body : how much 
then should they fear the jaws of hell that be afeard of the jaws of one 
so small a beast? And done the preaching, said : * Dost thou promise, 
brother wolf, to keep firm the pact of peace, that thou offend not man 
nor beast nor any creature ? ' Then the wolf, lifting up his right paw, laid 
it in the hand of Saint Francis. Therewith this act, and the others set forth 
above, wrought such great joy and marvel in all the people, that they lift 
up their voices blessing God, that had sent Saint Francis to them, who by 
his merits had set them free from the jaws of the cruel beast. And there- 
after this same wolf lived two years in Agobio, and went like a tame 
beast in and out the houses, without doing hurt to any, or any doing 
hurt to him, and was courteously nourished by the people ; and as he 
passed, never did any dog bark behind him. At length, after two years' 
space, brother wolf died of old age ; whereat the townsfolk sorely 
grieved, sith marking him pass so gently through the city, they minded 
them the better of the virtues and the sanctity of Saint Francis." 

One more story of S. Francis. "Once on a day it befell that a 
certain young man took turtle doves to market, and Saint Francis who 
had tender pity for gentle creatures, met him and said unto him : * I 
pray thee give them me, that gentle birds, upon which the Scripture 
likeneth chaste and humble souls, may not fall into the hands of men 
that would kill them.' And the young man gave them to Saint Francis, 
who, taking them in his bosom, spoke tenderly to them : e O my sisters, 
simple-minded turtle doves, why have ye let yourselves be caught? 
Now would I fain deliver you and make you nests, that ye may be 
fruitful and multiply according to the commandments of. your Creator.' 



And Saint Francis made nests for them all ; and they, abiding therein, did 
lay eggs and hatch them ; and so tame were they, that they dwelt with 
Saint Francis and his brothers as though they had been fowls that had 
always fed from their hands, and never did they go away until Saint 
Francis with his blessing gave them leave to go. And it came to pass 
that the young man also became a brother and lived in the Order 

in great sanctity." 

Of S. Francis it is 
recorded that on the 
fifteenth day of Septem- 
ber 1224 there appeared 
to him the vision of a 
fiery seraph, between 
whose wings was the 
figure of a man crucified, 
which was his gracious 
and tender Master, Jesus 
Christ the Lord. And 
on the body of S. Francis 
there was imprinted the 
image of a crucifix as it 
were a seal on soft wax. 
And the marks of nails 
appeared on the palms 
of his hands and the 
upper part of the in- 
steps of his feet. And 
in his side there was a 
wound, which for the 
two more years he lived 
at times threw forth 
blood. These marks 
were the famous Stig- 
mata. S. Francis died 
in 1226; the Francis- 
cans, or Grey Friars or~"Little Brothers," only arrived in Eng- 
land two years before. Our ancient churches had got their 
dedications long before this ; but of the churches built by the 
Franciscans themselves, two at any rate were dedicated to S. 
Francis ; one a great church at Norwich, and the other the 
splendid London church in Newgate Street, afterwards dedi- 
cated to Christ by Henry VIII., whose site was formerly 
occupied by Christ's Hospital and now by the General Post 
Office and Christ church, Newgate Street ( 1 80). The stigmata 
are shown on rood-screens at Hempstead and Stalham, Norfolk, 
and Bradninch, Devon. 

OF srm/mcis* (BR/IDQIDCH) 

B. AND C. 

1 33 


Criteria of the Credibility of the Legends Martyrdoms of Perpetua 
and Procopius. 

IT may now perhaps be asked some will have asked long 
before this " How much are we to believe of all this ? Is it 
all true ? Or is it all false ? " To neither question can a direct 
affirmative be given. It would be ridiculous to credit all the 
wild stories that are told of S. Margaret, S. Barbara, S. Catherine, 
S. Ursula, and scores of others. But it would be equally foolish 
to be so sceptical as to believe that there is no historical basis 
for any of the legends of the saints. In many of the narratives, 
in their main points, there is a substratum of truth. Bede, for 
instance, wrote much about matters of his own time or of the 
times immediately preceding his own, and much of it bears the 
impress of a careful, painstaking, scholarly mind. So with the 
plain and simple narrative of the Martyrdom of S. Perpetua of 
Carthage a narrative wholly free from late embellishment 
which is perhaps the reason why no English church is dedicated 
to her. 1 " It bears every mark of authenticity " ; it is allowed on 
all hands that the narrative, minus its rhetorical embellishments, 
is the genuine work of contemporaries. 

It is recorded of S. Perpetua that, while in prison, she saw in a 
dream a golden ladder which reached from earth to heaven ; but so 
narrow that only one could mount at once. To the two sides of which 
ladder were fastened swords and hooks and knives, to the intent that if 
any went up carelessly he was in danger of having his flesh torn. And 
at the foot of the ladder there was an enormous dragon who terrified 
those who would mount. But Perpetua said, "In the name of the 
Lord Jesus Christ he shall not hurt me." Then the dragon, as if afraid, 
lifted away his head, and Perpetua mounted to the top, and there she 
saw a garden, and in the midst thereof a tall man dressed like a 
shepherd, milking his sheep, and around were many thousand persons 
clad in white. Then Perpetua knew that the day of her martyrdom 
was at hand ; and soon afterwards, with S. Felicitas, she was sent to 
the amphitheatre of Carthage to be exposed to wild beasts on the festival 

1 See The Passion of 5. Perpetua, edited by Very Rev. J. A. Robinson, 
D.D., Dean of Wells, 1891. 


of Caesar Geta. Both were tossed and gored by a wild cow, and then 
were sent away to be despatched at the end of the show by the ' con- 

The plain unvarnished account of the martyrdom of Cyprian 
also carries conviction of authenticity with it. So also for the 
legend of Procopius there is a definite and reliable historical 
basis ; for two versions remain of the account of his contemporary, 
Eusebius, who was Bishop of Caesarea in Palestine. He relates 
that Procopius held the rank of exorcist, and was reader and 
interpreter in Syriac. He was good and gentle, fasting much 
and living a hard life. u Entering Caesarea one day, he was 
taken before the governor Flavian, and ordered to sacrifice to the 
gods. But he proclaimed that there are not several gods, but 
One God, the creator and author of all things. Neither would 
he sacrifice to the emperors. * Listen,' he said, * to Homer ' : 

" c OVK ayaSuv TroAu/cot/jtm'?/ t$ KoipcLvos ecrro), ets /focriAei"?. 5 

Whereupon he was led off to the place of execution, and they 
cut off his head. This was in the first year of our persecution 
(that of Diocletian, c. 302), and took place at Csesarea." This 
simple and dignified account was expanded and embellished 
later into two legends of extraordinary complexity and length, 
filled with detail entirely mythical. 

A very great deal of detail, too, is true, if not of the saint of 
whom it is told, yet surely and certainly of very many others. It 
cannot be proved now that S. Catherine suffered on the wheel, but 
it is known that a Christian slave- woman, Charitana, was broken 
on the wheel in the Diocletian persecution. It cannot be proved 
that S. Agatha and S. Lucy and S. Agnes preferred a Christian 
death to a Pagan marriage ; but it is surely and certainly true 
that this brought many another Christian maiden to her death. 
And so with other stories of Christian heroism and piety. There 
is danger in believing too little as well as in believing too much. 
We may be sure that for every name we know of a Roman 
officer who refused sacrifice to the gods of Rome, of every 
maiden who guarded virginity with death, indeed for every name 
of a martyr that we know, there are ten, it may be a hundred, 
names which we do not know and never shall know; "which 
have no memorial, who are perished as though they had never 
been, and are become as though they had never been born." 

In his Introduction to Hagiography, translated by Mrs 
V. M. Crawford under the title Legends of the Saints, Pere 
Delehaye proposes a classification of the Acts of the Martyrs 
and of hagiographic documents in general, which has already 
met with considerable acceptance, notably from Professor 


Harnack. Following this in the main, eight categories may 
be formulated : 

I. The first comprises official reports of the interrogatories 
of martyrs before Roman proconsuls. These are of the highest 
value. But even these require critical examination, e.g., the 
most perfect model of Proconsular Acts, the Passio Cypriani, is 
in reality a composite record, consisting of three separate 
documents ; first, the official text of an early examination by a 
proconsul in 257, as a result of which Cyprian was sent into 
exile ; then the official report of the arrest and a second 
examination in 258 ; finally the account of the martyrdom. In 
the authentic Acts the martyr does not pose ; one hears only 
the words of the judge and the martyr, and one is present at the 
carrying out of the sentence ; it is an official record ; the editor 
introduces nothing of his own into the words he puts into the 
mouths of the judge and the accused. Few such records exist ; 
the Passion of the Scillitan martyrs is one of the best of them. 

II. The second category of authentic Acts comprises un- 
official accounts of eye-witnesses. They may be (i) Docu- 
ments in which the accused alone speaks in his own name ; (2) 
those in which a contemporary chronicles the evidence ; 
(3) those in which he in addition adds testimony of his own, 
as in several chapters of Eusebius' Martyrs of Palestine^ and in 
the life of Cyprian by Deacon Pontius. With these we may 
compare the narratives of Bede concerning such of the missioners 
of his time as were personally known to him, and the chroniclers 
of the martyrdom of Edmund, king of the East Angles, and 
Edward, the young king of Wessex. 

III. The third category is composed of Acts of which the 
principal source is a written document or documents belonging 
to the first or second category. This document may be abridged, 
amplified, interpolated, or recast to any extent, small or great. 
The difficulty is to pick out the original document. Thus the 
life of the Empress Helena is based on genuine historical 
documents ; but as we have seen, these were later on amplified, 
recast, and falsified to a large extent. To this category a great 
mass of biography is to be referred. It cannot be questioned 
for one moment that there is adequate evidence in documents 
of early date that S. Martin, S. Leger, S. Remigius, S. German, 
S. Boniface, not only are real historical personages, but did 
actually do missionary work at the times and in the districts 
and very much in the fashion that they are reported to have 
done ; the same is true of S. David in Wales ; SS. Patrick, 
Columba, Brandon, in. Ireland ; SS. Aidan, Cuthbert, Ninian, 
Hilda, Wilfrid, in Northumbria ; and of SS. Birinus and Chad 



in the South of England and the Midlands. Strip off the later 
embellishments, and a solid substratum of historic fact remains. 
The proportion of fact to embellishment varies immensely, from 
say 90 per cent, to nearly nil. From the large proportion of fact in 
the biography of a saint of late date, such as S. Francis, we pass, 
as time recedes backward, to an ever-decreasing amount of fact, 
and an ever-increasing amount of myth : the earlier the date 
at which the saint lived and worked, the more difficult it is to 
obtain anything beyond a bare modicum of satisfactory evidence. 
There can be little doubt that SS. Hubert, Leonard, Sebastian, 
Vincent, Lawrence, Botolph, Giles, Nicholas, were^once living 
men, and did some such work as they are credited with ; but the 
longer ago it is since they lived, the greater is the accretion of 
additional and false elements with which their story has been 
encrusted. It is to be noted also that though the documentary 
evidence of a biography may be of quite late date, yet it may 
be based on ancient data known to the biographer, though not 
to ourselves, e.g., the Lives of S. Bridget of Kildare were mostly 
written centuries after her death, but they are based on ancient 
material, for they contain numerous references to an ancient 
state of things in the numerous references to archaic tribe-law, 
wizards and wizardry, and the presence of the cow in the kitchen. 
IV. The fourth category consists of Acts of which the kernel 
is not a document, but certain facts, which if few, are real ; e.g., 
the name of the saint, the locality where he worked or perished, 
the existence of his shrine, the date of his feast. Round this 
the writer constructs what nowadays is termed a historical 
romance. And of course, then as now, the proportion of history 
and fiction may vary very considerably, as it does in Esmond 
as compared with The Virginians, or Hypatia compared with 
Westward Ho, or in Sir Walter Scott's novels. Among such 
historical romances we may place the legends of the mission 
work of the apostles Andrew, Matthew, Thomas, and James the 
Greater, and the legends of Edward the Confessor, the two 
Maries, Lazarus and Mary Magdalene, and many other 
undoubtedly real personages, among whom we should like to 
include S. George. 

In this, as in the following categories, the legends contain a 
large amount of repetition. When imagination failed the writer, 
as not infrequently happened, he calmly transferred to his own 
hero or heroine the details that belonged to another : wholesale 
plagiarism is exceedingly common. The biography of S. 
Remachus is servilely imitated from that of S. Lambert ; and 
of the Lives of S. Hubert, S. Eustace, S. Meinulf, S. Arnold of 
Metz, and S. Lambert several portions are shared in common ; 


the passion of S. Martina is literally the same as that of S. 
Tatiana ; S. Castissima owns the same acts as S. Euphrosyne, 
and so with many others. 

The passion of S. Vincent and S. Lawrence is borrowed from 
that of the martyrs of Phrygia, as told by Socrates and Sozomen. 
The miracles of the ship that comes to a halt and that of the 
oxen who refuse to go further are of common occurrence ; they 
are told of the arrival of S. James the Greater in Spain, of S. 
Lubentius at Dietkirchen, of S. Maternus at Rodenkirchen, of 
S. Ernmerammus at Ratisbon, of the girdle of the Blessed Virgin 
at Prato, of the Volto Santo at Lucca. 1 

V. To the next class belong those imaginative romances in 
which there is no kernel at all, not the least substratum of fact ; 
in which we cannot accept that the saint even existed. Such 
imaginative romances were written, like modern novels, to edify, 
instruct, and please, and there is no more sinister motive at 
the back of the composition than in a modern novel, such 
as Treasure Island or The Delectable Duchy. To this class 
we may refer such legends as those of SS. Ursula, Catherine, 
Barbara, Margaret, Dorothy, and Roch. The probability is that 
these are no more real personages than the characters in a 
modern novel. In this class the personages, as well as the 
incidents, are invented, and the only question we are entitled to 
ask is whether they are ben trovato. Such stories were written 
with as innocent a motive as any modern work of fiction. 

VI. A special subdivision may be devoted to those saints 
whose legend is suggested by the etymology of their names ; 
eg., S. Agnes ("a lamb"), S. Hippolytus ("torn by horses"), 
S. Christopher ("Christ-bearer"), S. Petronilla ("Peter's little 
daughter ") ; to which we may perhaps add Havering (" Have a 
ring") in the story -of the Confessor and the Evangelist. 2 

VII. Another subdivision includes explanations of pictorial 
representations. S. Denis, S. Osyth, and others suffered death 
by decapitation. This the pictorial artist depicts in a forcible 
way by showing them with their head in their hands. Then 
comes the legend-monger, and starts them walking, head in 
hands ; eg., S. Denis to Montmartre. 

VIII. The last category comprises those legends in which the 
direct aim is not the edification or amusement of the reader, but 
the selfish personal interest of the writer or of the society to 
which he belongs. These narratives may be catalogued simply 

1 Delehaye, Ibid., 31, 102, 104. 

2 To these may be added SS. Sidwell and Cornelius. In Flemish glass 
S. Cornelius is shown with the papal triple tiara, but with a bishop's cross ; 
in his right hand he holds a horn. As S. Corentin,he protects Breton cattle. 


as Downright Deliberate Forgeries. At such work the early 
mediaeval chroniclers were adepts. They were in constant 
practice. Living in religious houses, and being the only people 
who could read or write, or who could understand Latin or 
Norman-French, it was the easiest thing in the world to palm off 
forgeries on the laity. If there was a link loose in a monastery's 
title to property, it was the most natural thing in the world to 
supply it by inventing a charter from some bygone monarch, 
or a grant from some defunct landowner ; thus the house was 
able to secure to itself with the greatest case manors and tolls and 
fishing rights, and the like, to which it had little, if any, right at 
all. It was only natural then to transfer this system of swindling 
and forgery to the province of legendary history, with a view to 
aggrandising the house to which the writer belonged. Some- 
times, however, two religious houses were at variance, and each 
side brandished forgeries in the other's face, as for instance, on 
the question whether the relics of S. Alban had been returned to 
S. Albans monastery or were still at Ely. Among forgeries 
perpetrated to increase the kudos of a monastery we may 
without doubt include those of the visit of Joseph of Arimathea 
to Glastonbury and that of S. Peter to consecrate the new abbey 
church at Westminster. 



Compound Dedications Change of Dedication Lost Dedications 
Dedications to Unknown Saints Dedications to Little Known Saints 
Doubtful Alternative Dedications Spurious Dedications. 


IN a large number of churches the dedication is not to one saint, 
but to two or more. Sometimes the dedication, e.g., to SS. Peter 
and Paul, SS. Philip and James, was from the first a compound 
one. But more frequently a single has become a compound 
dedication by process of accretion. Some of these compound 
dedications arise naturally from family relationship. The rela- 
tionship may be that of mother and child ; thus the church of 
Beaulieu, Hampshire, is dedicated to the Blessed Virgin and 
Child. Or the child's name may precede the mother's; there 
are 5 dedications to Christ and Blessed Mary the Virgin ; and 
3 to SS. Cyriacus and Julitta, Husband and wife are com- 
memorated together, but not in an English church, in the dedi- 
cation to SS. Julian and Basilissa. The dedication SS. Gervase 
and Protasius is of twin brothers ; so are the three dedications 
to SS. Cosmas and Damian. On the other hand, there are no 
compound dedications to the apostolic brothers, James and 
John, or Andrew and Peter. 

Some compound dedications are due to natural association ; 
e.g., i to All Saints and All Angels ; 3 to S. Helen and the 
Invention of the Cross. Others are simply due to the fact that 
the saints in question were bracketed together in some one of 
the calendars ; e.g., SS. Fabian and Sebastian, 2Oth January, I 
dedication ; SS. Simon and Jude, 28th October, 3 dedications. 
Of compound dedications, that of SS. Peter and Paul is faraway 
the most common ; it occurs 286 times. The reason for this is 
to be found not so much in the desire to bracket together the 
Apostle of the Jews and the Apostle of the Gentiles, as in the 
fact that both were believed to have been executed on the same 
day, 29th June. 

Or again, where the dedication was not really to a saint at 
all, but to the man whose preaching had organised the first 
Christian congregation or whose money had built the first church, 


the name of an authentic saint was not infrequently added in 
after days, e.g., SS. Menaacus and Dunstan (3 dedications), the 
Blessed Meran and Thomas-a-Becket, SS. Pandiana and John 
the Baptist ; while S. Bees was re-dedicated to God, S. Mary of 
York, and S. Bega. 

The addition of the name of a Biblical to that of a non- 
Biblical saint is very frequent, especially when the fame of the 
latter had paled ; e.g., S. Candida and Holy Cross. Waltham 
abbey originally commemorated only the miraculous trans- 
portation of a portion of the Holy Cross ; afterwards the name 
of S. Lawrence was added. In similar fashion probably may 
be explained dedications to SS. Andrew and Eustachius, Holy 
Trinity and S. Osyth, SS. John and Alkmund, SS. Mawnanus 
and Stephen, SS. Peter and Etheldreda, SS. Peter and Wilfrid. 
Most of all was it desired to obtain in addition the intercession 
of Our Lady, whose name therefore appears in a vast number 
of compound dedications. In the case of several cathedrals 
complexity was produced by the addition of the favourite dedica- 
tion names of Henry VI 1 1., viz., Holy Trinity, Christ, or the 
Blessed Virgin. Winchester cathedral illustrates the process of 
accretion. There is a vague tradition that it was originally 
dedicated to S. Amphibalus, the priest who was sheltered by 
S. Alban, conjointly with SS. Peter and Paul and S. Swithun. 
At the Conquest the dedication was changed to " SS. Peter and 
Paul and Swithun." Henry VIII. re-dedicated it to The Sacred 
and Undivided Trinity. Now it is described in the Clergy List 
as the church of the Holy Trinity, SS. Peter, Paul, and Swithun. 

In other cases the compound form is simply due to the 
consolidation of parishes. The process of consolidation has 
been carried furthest in the City of London, producing such 
cumbrous compounds as " SS. Anne and Agnes with S. John 
Zachary," and most complex of all, " S. Nicholas Cole Abbey, 
S. Nicholas Olave, S. Mary Somerset, S. Mary Mountshaw, with 
S. Benet, Paul's Wharf, and S. Peter, Paul's Wharf"; here six 
parishes have been consolidated. 

In such churches of monks or canons as were parochial, 
there was a special reason why a double dedication might arise, 
that while the whole church was dedicated to one particular 
saint, the parochial nave or aisle might have a special dedication 
of its own, e.g.> Bridlington priory church was dedicated to the 
Blessed Virgin, but the parochial part of it to S. Thomas of 
Canterbury. So also the priory of Nunburnholme, Yorkshire, 
was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, but the parish church to 
All Hallows. 1 

1 Raine in Yorkshire Arch&ological Journal^ ii. 182. 



Not infrequently an entirely new dedication has been sub- 
stituted. The occasion for it no doubt was frequently a re- 
consecration following a rebuilding of a church or important 
additions made to it. Sometimes the very existence of the 
dedication had passed out of memory. Sometimes the name 
had become unpopular because identified with superstition, the 
reason given by Henry VI II. for suppressing dedications to S. 
Thomas of Canterbury. Henry seems to have meant to abolish 
all dedications except his three favourites ; for in 1536 he issued 
a proclamation that every saint's day should be abolished, and 
that in future every parish feast should be held on the first 
Sunday in October, a proclamation which fortunately was pretty 
generally disregarded. Again, I5th August is a feast day still 
observed in many villages ; in all these there is a presumption 
that the original dedication was to the Assumption of the 
Virgin, and was afterwards changed as being without scriptural 
warrant. A very complex series of changes is seen in the great 
and beautiful church of Milton Abbas ; it was dedicated to " SS. 
Mary, Michael, Samson, and Branwallader." Later this was 
reduced to "SS. Mary and Samson"; later still to "S. James 
the Great." This last change illustrates what had become 
increasingly common in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, 
and of course still more so after the Reformation, viz, the 
addition or the substitution of names of Biblical saints; and 
above all, of " All Saints " or u All Hallows/' the dedications to 
whom reached the great number of 1,217. * n some cases a 
wealthy and popular chantry overshadowed the church in which 
it was founded, its name ultimately taking the place of the 
original dedication. Thus the church at Cambridge, now called 
" Little S. Mary's " to distinguish it from the University church 
of " Great S. Mary's," was originally S. Peter's church, from which 
the adjacent college got its name of " Peterhouse." The parish 
church of Hitchin is now dedicated to S. Mary ; but in 1475 a 
licence was issued by the Bishop of Lincoln to found a " gild of 
S. Mary in the church of S. Andrew, Hicchyn, co. Hertford." 
Here the original dedication to S. Andrew has been supplanted 
by the guild dedication. 


Every ancient church once had its patron saint Sometimes 
the church has disappeared, and the dedication with it 
Nowadays, in many a parish, there are few villagers who can tell 
one to whom the church is dedicated ; to them it is simply " the 


church " or " the parish church " or " t'owd church." No wonder 
that so many churches are anonymous ; there are said to be over 
500 ancient churches and over 1 50 ancient chapelries without a 
known dedication. Many, however, have been recovered of late. 
Burial in the parish church was formerly not forbidden ; and in 
such case the legal title of the church will be mentioned in the 
will of the deceased. Sometimes the name of the patron saint 
has been retained in the name of the village, while it has been 
lost in the dedication of the church ; thus the name of Peakirk, 
once written Pegkirk, is in itself quite sufficient to show that the 
dedication of the little old church is to S. Pega, sister of S. 
Guthlac of Crowland. But this does not always follow. From 
the form of the name of a Kentish parish, Bethersden or 
Betrysden (Beatrichesdenne), it has been argued, erroneously, 
that the parish church was dedicated to S. Beatrice ; whereas the 
village feast, which is nearly always on dedication day, is on 
20th July, the festival of the famous S. Margaret of Antioch, 
who is known by documentary evidence to be the patron saint. 
The date of the parish feast is of great importance in settling 
dedications, e.g. t the church of Wimborne is dedicated to S. 
Augustine; the village feast is kept on the day of S. Augustine 
of Canterbury ; therefore the dedication is not to S. Augustine 
of Hippo. It should be remembered, however, that the village 
feast may be held according to the Old or the New Style, so that 
it may be necessary to deduct from the date of the present feast 
day from ten to thirteen days. Sometimes the date of the 
village feast is no guide at all ; for if dedication day fell at some 
busy period of the year or in winter, it was not seldom changed 
to one of the greater feast days or holidays. Arranged in 
order of dement, the following English counties had most 
dedications untraced in 1899 : 

Devon - - 60 
Dorset - - 50 
Essex - - 37 

Somerset - - 37 
Sussex - - 37 
Yorkshire - - 29 

By researches among wills, Canon Raine added greatly to our 
knowledge of Yorkshire dedications, and reduced the unknown 
dedications of Nottinghamshire to 6. 


In the case of some saints, especially of those of Celtic blood, 
all memorial of them has passed away except the dedication ; 
e.g., SS. Alwys, Breward, Dilpe, Erney, Torney, Gomonda, Kuet, 
Materiana, Merther, Metherian, Newlyn, Onslow, Stedian, 


Tallan, whose churches are in Cornwall and Devon ; and SS. 
Dinabo, Mapley, Weonard in Hereford and Monmouth. 


In this class Celtic proprietary dedications naturally bulk 
large. Some of the least known saints are SS. Merryn or 
Meran, Cleer, Grada, Creed, Sanscreed, Day or Dye, Eval or 
Uvell or Noell, Just, Winnow, Pinnock, Twinnock, all in Corn- 
wall ; and elsewhere SS. Briavel, Elphin or Elgin, Eadnor, and 


Where a dedication is not given full-length, it is often impos- 
sible to know for certain to which of two saints it should be 
credited ; e.g., it is very often difficult to decide between S. 
John the Apostle and S. John the Baptist, or S. Mary the Virgin 
and S. Mary Magdalene, or S. Thomas the Apostle and S. 
Thomas of Canterbury, or S. Margaret of Antioch and S. 
Margaret of Scotland, or S. Augustine of Hippo and S. Augustine 
of Canterbury. Bede says that S. Paulinus built a stone church 
at Lincoln ; this church, or rather one of its successors, probably 
occupies the original site; but here, as at S. Paul's Cray, 
Paulinus' name has been shortened to " Paul," thus confusing 
him with the apostle. No doubt many a minor saint has been 
ousted by one with a bigger reputation, who happened to have a 
name identical or similar. 


Lastly, there are dedications which are no dedications. 
These are particularly common in the City of London, where 
S. John Zachary has nothing to do with Zacharias. It is a 
church of S. John Baptist which had been conveyed by the Dean 
and Chapter of S. Paul's to one Zachary, and to which people 
added Zachary's name to distinguish it from S. John Baptist on 
Walbrook. So it is with S. Andrew Hubbard, S. Lawrence 
Pountney, S. Catherine Coleman, S. Margaret Moses ( = Moyses), 
S. Benet Finck (or Finch), and S. Benet Sherehog ; there was 
living in the City in 1122 a certain " Wilhelmus Serehog" and 
later, an " Alwinus Sherehog." l 

1 For Compound, Changed, Lost, Alternative, and Spurious Dedications, 
see Arnold- Foster, Ibid^ chaps. 50 and 51. 


Uncanonised Saints- King Henry the Sixth Sir John Schorn. 


IN early days there was no formality whatever about canonisation. 
The conditions of sanctity were of a most uncertain character. 
No formal process, certainly no reference to Rome, was required 
to put a departed worthy on the roll of the saints. Piety and 
blamelessness of life were desiderata ; but the proofs of holiness in 
the technical sense were miracles, and these proofs were estimated 
simply by the vox populL A good man died ; signs were believed 
to be wrought at his tomb or by his intercession ; the multitude 
flocked to the place, and his claim to sanctity was carried by 
acclamation. Eadmer records a conversation between Anselm 
and Lanfranc, in which the former supports the canonisation of 
Archbishop Alphege on substantial reasons alone. The first 
step taken to regularise canonisation was to require for it 
episcopal sanction. 1 The next step was to refer all proposals 
for canonisation to Rome, where counsel for prosecution and 
defence were formally appointed, and the departed worthy was 
sat upon with all the formalities of a court of law ; it is not long 
since this process was gone through to secure the canonisation 
of Joan of Arc. In the later Middle Ages the power of canonisation 
was one of the most valuable perquisites of the pope ; enormous 
sums being levied by the Papal Court on the friends of the 
candidate, so much so that not infrequently, as in the case of 
Bishop William De Marchia of Wells, the process had to be 
abandoned, though heavy expenditure had already been incurred. 
The present system or process of canonisation dates back to 
Benedict XIV., who was pope from 1740 to 1758. 

Among English saints who obtained informal canonisation 
only, probably the one most venerated was King Henry VI. 
In a letter dated 1504, Pope Julius II. acknowledges to have 
heard that "some miracles, ut pie creditor, have been wrought by 
the intercession of King Henry VI. and crowds of people have 
begun to flock to his tomb." His sufferings and the rumours 

1 Forbes' Kalendar of Scottish Saints, xlix. 



of a violent death had deeply impressed all England, and he was 
venerated in every county, especially in the North. His statue 
on the rood-screen in York minster was an object of devotion, 
and a Yorkist archbishop in 1479 had to forbid that it should 

Henry the Sixth. 
Rood-screen, Barton Turf. 

be venerated; it was removed in the sixteenth century. At 
Alford, Lincolnshire, there was a bequest to "King Henry's 
Light and S. Anthony's Light" In-Ripoh minster, offerings 
were made to King -Henry VI. in 1502 and 1525. At Windsor, 


where was his tomb, as in the case of formally canonised saints, 
little signs or tokens 1 were manufactured, to be carried home by 
pilgrims. A list of miracles wrought by the saintly king is 
printed by Hearne as an addition to Otterburn's Chronicle ; and 
in the year 1500 his life had attained to the dignity of a legend, 
which was put forth by a monk at Windsor, prefaced by the 
following hymn : 

Salve ! miles preciose 
Rex Henrice generose 

Palmes vitis celice ; 
In radice can tat is 
Vernans flore sanctitatis 

Viteque angelice. 

Salve ! forma pietatis, 
Exemplar humilitatis, 

Decus innocentiae ! 
Vi oppressis vel turbatis, 
Moestis atque desolatis 

Scola paciencie. 
Cetera desint 

Henry VII. made formal demand for the canonisation of 
Henry VI., but declined to pay the extortionate sums demanded 
by the Papal Court He had intended to remove the Windsor 
tomb to the easternmost recess of his new chapel at Westminster, 
which was made ready for it Here is a Sarum prayer : 

"Prsesta, qusesumus, omnipotens et misericors Deus 5< ut qui 
devotissimi Regis Henrici merita miraculis fulgentia pie mentis affectu 
recolimus in terris, ejus et omnium sanctorum tuorum intercessionibus 
ab omni peste, febre, morbo ac improvisa morte ceterisque eruamur 
malis, et gaudia superna adipisci mereamur. Per dominum nostrum 
Jesum Christum filium tuum." 2 

On the rood-screen at Gateley, Norfolk, the saintly king is 
depicted with Sir John Schorn. 3 The latter was never canonised, 
and came too late (he died in 1 308) to get commemoration in 
dedications. He was a gentleman by birth, Rector of North 
Marston, Bucks., and Doctor of Divinity ; his greatest feat 

1 One of these is illustrated in the British Archaeological Journal for 
1845, P- 205. 

y On the veneration of King Henry VI. see Edward Peacock in Proceed- 
ings of the Society of Antiquaries, 1891, p. 227 ; and Stanley's Memorials of 
Westminster Abbey^ 3rd ed., pp. 162 and 616. 

3 The prefix "Sir" means "parish priest," not "knight" or "baronet." 



Sir John Schorn. 
Rood-screens at Gateley and Cawston. 

was that he once conjured the devil into a boot 1 It was also 
said of him that by reason of frequent prayer his knees had 

1 See drawing from the screen of AJphington, Devon, in Bond and Camm's 
Rood Screens and Rood Lofts, ii. 238. 


become horny ; also that during a drought, at the request of his 
distressed parish he struck the ground with his staff and a spring 
(now a well) broke forth. This spring was chalybeate, and 
among other purposes was good against gout, which may have 
been the devil in the boot. On the rood-screen at Cawston he 
is depicted with the cap, cloak, and hood of a Doctor of Divinity ; 
on the Gateley screen his name is annexed 


He was depicted in the east window of his own church, and 
had an image at Canterbury ; at first his shrine was in his church 
of North Marston, but when the living came into the possession 
of the college in 1481, it was removed at great cost to S. George's, 
Windsor. The Fabric Rolls for the igth and 2Oth year of 
Edward IV. show heavy expenditure, which includes among 
other things " lintels for the enterclose of the chapel of Master 
John Schorne." This was placed in the east corner of the south 
aisle. Later on it was returned to Long Marston, and such was 
the resort of pilgrims during the century it remained there that 
at the Suppression the offerings were estimated to amount to 
not less than 500, say 6,000 in our money, each year. Erasmus 
says that there were nearly as many pilgrims to Long Marston 
as to Walsingham. In 1538 Dr Loudon writes that at Long 
Marston " Mr Johan Schorn standeth blessing a boot, whereunto 
they do say he conveyed the devil. He is much sought for the 
ague." On the i/th of September he writes that he is about 
to send up Mr Johan Schorn to London. 1 

Quite a long list might be drawn up of persons who obtained 
popular, but not formal canonisation. 3 Among them are Simon 
de Montfort; John of Bridlington; Bishop Dalderby of Lincoln ; 
Thomas, Duke of Lancaster, who was beheaded at Pontefract in 
1322, and whose burial-place in the Cluniac priory there became 
a place of pilgrimage ; and Richard Scrope, Archbishop of York, 
beheaded by order of Henry IV. in 1 398. Scrope's tomb was 
resorted to by thousands as that of a saint ; offerings were 
made at it, and miracles were said to have occurred before it 

1 See Norfolk and Norwich Archaological Society^ ii. 283, and the 
Reliquary and Illustrated Archceologist, vii. 37. 

2 In the illustration on p. 199 S. John of Bridlington is shown with 
S. William of York. The former was prior of the Augustinian priory of 
Bridlington, Yorkshire, He died in 1379 ; and at a later day his relics were 
removed to a shrine behind the high altar : moreover, a feast day was 
assigned to him in the calendar. An attempt to canonise him, however, 
was unsuccessful. 


G. H. W, 

SS. William of York and John of Bridlington. 
From stained glass at Morley, Derbyshire. 


Henry IV. forbade the offerings ; and the officials of the cathedral 
were ordered to pull down the wooden screenwork by which the 
tomb was enclosed, and to pile wood and stone over it so as to 
prevent access of the people. Offerings, however, were still made, 
and at the Reformation the treasures deposited in the adjoining 
chapel were among the richest in the cathedral. l At Wells 
too, the vaulting of the retrochoir was so planned as to enclose 
a saint's chapel for Bishop William de Marchia, whose canonisation 
the chapter desired to obtain, but were obliged to desist owing 
to the excessive demands of the Papal Court. Here is a Latin 
effusion of a pious versifier, indignant that the stories of his 
favourite saint are received with incredulity, though great' works 
are still wrought at his tomb through his intercession : 

" Tumba tamen protestatur 
Ubi vir hie veneratur ; 
Hsec non falsa, ut affatur, 

Preciosa paginal 
" Licet non canonicatur, 
Adhuc autem operatur 
Per hunc Pater, cum precatur, 
. Plura beneficia." 

1 For an inventory of these see Monasticon Anglicanum, viii. 1206, and 
Canon Raine's Fabric Rolls of York Minster^ 225. 




Dedications of Churches in selected counties Northumberland, Durham, 
Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Nottinghamshire, Kent, Wiltshire, Somerset, 
Devonshire, Shropshire, Pembrokeshire Comparison of Saints com- 
memorated in Dedications and on Bells. 

So far we have spoken in the main of the dedications of 
English churches generally. It is of considerable interest to 
examine how far the general conclusions that have been obtained 
hold true of restricted districts. So far, however, in few English 
counties have the dedications been made the subject of serious 
study. It is a task peculiarly incumbent on the provincial 
archaeological societies, and should be taken in hand at once. 
In most of the counties there are now complete and accurate 
accounts of the Church Plate and others of the Church Bells ; 
similarly investigations should be carried out into the dedica- 
tions and patron saints of the churches of the county. A few 
suggestions may be offered as to the way to go to work. The 
first thing is to get a complete list of all the dedications, and where 
possible, of their dates. For this list resource may be had to 
the Diocesan Calendar, the Clergy List, the Postal Directory, 
and the like. Then the dedications must be tested, one by one. 
If they are only known by hearsay, say so. But they may be 
corroborated by mediaeval wills or other documents. The date 
of the village feast or fair, 1 which was usually held on the 

1 In most of the towns and parishes of England (except where the 
privilege of new fairs had been obtained in ancient times), the old fairs, 
whether fixed by custom or by charter, depend upon the patron saint of the 
church. Thus the primitive fair of Oxford was on S. Frideswide's Day, 
October iQth, because that was Dedication day at the priory church. At 
Canterbury, S. Thomas was murdered on September 29th, and his body was 
translated on July 7th ; this occasioned two fairs annually in that city. On 
July 7th there is a fair at Bromhill, near Brandon Ferry, and another at 
Westacre, near Swaffham, both in Norfolk ; in both places are old ruinous 
chapels, which were dedicated to S. Thomas of Canterbury. The charters 
for fairs granted by kings of England were often a confirmation rather than 


anniversary of the dedication of the church, may be evidence* 
But it must be remembered (i) that the saints' days in the 
calendar were sometimes moved to another date (as may be 
seen below by comparing the calendars of Bede and Sarum) ; 
(2) that the village feast day was sometimes altered, e.g., by 
enactment of Henry VI I L, or to take it out of harvest time, or 
to bring it to a time of year when good weather might be ex- 
pected j 1 (3) and that the date of the fair may be New Style or 
Old Style, and the latter may vary as much as three days. 

Then when the individual dedications have been as far as 
possible verified, they should be grouped under the names of the 
respective saints commemorated. The next thing is to arrange 
the names of the patron saints in order of popularity. Then 
comes the interesting attempt to explain the abnormal popularity 
of some, and the abnormal unpopularity of others. Finally, the 
order of popularity in the individual county should be compared 
with that of the neighbouring counties, and with that of all 
England, taking into account also diocesan boundaries and 
changes in them. 

It will probably be found desirable to divide the subject into 
two parts : dedications before and dedications after the end of 
the sixteenth century. 

For the whole subject of dedications Miss Arnold-Forster's 
book is the standard work. 

If the district is Celtic, or if Celtic dedications are numerous, 
then the dedications must be approached by a totally distinct 
line of research, for which some knowledge of Welsh, and at any 
rate a pretty thorough acquaintance with the literature which 
has grown up on the subject of Celtic dedications and Celtic 
saints, are desirable. A list of books dealing with this special 
subject will be found in the bibliography prefixed to this volume. 

The counties which have been selected for a cursory 
examination in this volume are Northumberland, Durham, 
Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Nottingham, Kent, Wiltshire, Somerset, 

a new grant ; thus King Richard gave a charter for a fair to be held 
eight days in Peterborough, beginning on the feast of S. Peter ; but a fair 
had been held on that day, June 29th, from time immemorial, because the 
church was dedicated to S. Peter. 

1 Lawton mentions that at Bishop Wilton, Yorkshire, the parish feast, up 
to the middle of the fifteenth century, was held on September i5th, the vigil 
of S. Edith of Wilton, who therefore, and not S. Edith of Polesworth, is the 
patron saint of the church : but since the said day fell at a lime when York- 
shire people were busy with their harvest, John, Archbishop of York, trans- 
lated the said feast until the Sunday the next ensuing, every year solemnly 
to be celebrated. 



Devonshire, Shropshire, Pembrokeshire. It is not attempted to 
forestall detailed and thoroughgoing research, but merely to 
present a few obvious surface conclusions. 


The following table has been compiled by the writer from 
the list of ancient dedications in Yorkshire, as set forth by 
Mr Lawton in his Collectio rerum ecclesiasticarum de diocesi 
Eboracensi, as verified and corrected by Canon Raine, from wills 
prior to 1560 preserved in York and those formerly kept at 
Richmond, Yorkshire, but now in London. It must be borne 
in mind that in this and all the county lists doubt often exists as to 
the real ascription of dedications to S. John, S. James, S. Peter, 
S. Paul, S. Thomas, S. Augustine, S. Edward, and others ; that 
a good many dedications have not been determined with 
certainty, and several are still unknown. The order given below, 
however, is probably approximately correct, though not the exact 
figures. For Yorkshire the order of dedications is as follows : l 

1. All Saints or 

All Hallows 144 2 

2. Blessed Virgin 

Mary - 129 I 

3. S. Peter - 50 3 

4. S. Michael 41 4 
" 5. S. Andrew - 38 5 

6. S. Helena - 34 19 

7. S.John Baptist 33 6 

8. S. Nicholas 29 7 

9. S. Oswald - 22 24 

10. Holy Trinity 22 10 

11. S. James 21 8 

12. S. Leonard - 18 15 

13. S. Cuthbert - 16 23 

14. S. Lawrence - 14 12 
14. S. Martin - 14 16 
14, S. Paul 14 9 

17. S. Wilfrid - 13 29 

1 8. S. Hilda - 11 50 

19. S. Giles - 10 1 8 

20. S. Mary Mag- 

dalene - 10 13 

21. S.Bartholomew 8 17 

22. S. Margaret - 7 1 1 

23. S. Catherine 6 26 
23. S. Edmund 6 27 
23. S. John Evan- 
gelist - 6 14 

26. S. Stephen 5 30 

27. S. Augustine 4 40 
27. S. George - 4 20 
27. S. Thomas of 

Canterbury 4 22 

30. S. Anne - 3 32 

30. S. Clement - 3 32 

30. S. German 3 50 

30. S. Gregory - 3 38 
30. S. John of 

Beverley - 3 73 

35. S. Agatha - 2 100 

35. S. Alban - 2 58 

35. S. Botolph - 2 25 

35. S.Christopher 2 60 

35. S. Edward - 2 48 
35. Holy Cross or 

Holy Rood 2 21 

35. S. Patrick - 2 68 

1 In all these tables the first column of figures gives the local order, the 
second the number of dedications, tfre third the general order as shown in 
Chapter III. 


To the following only a single church is dedicated : 

42. S. Akelda 

43. S. Alkeld (?) 

44. All Souls 

45. S. Benedict 

46. S. Bridget 

47. S. Columb 

48. S. Cyprian 

49. S. David 

50. S. Denis 

51. S. Edith 

52. S. Everilda 

53. S. Faith 

54. S. Felix 

55. S. Jude 

56. S. Lambert 

57. S. Matthew 

58. S. Maurice 

59. S. Olave 

60. S. Osyth or Sithe 

61. S. Quintin 

62. S. Radegund 

63. S. Richarius 

64. S. Robert of Knares- 


65. S. Ronald 

66. S. Sampson 

67. S. Saviour 

68. S. Sepulchre 

69. S. Simon 

70. S. Swithun 

71. S. Ursula 

72. S. Werburga 

73. S. William of York 

74. S. Winifred 

The first surprise is that the Blessed Virgin is ousted from 
her precedence in favour of All Saints. Secondly, there is a 
grateful remembrance, pleasant to notice, of Yorkshire saints. 
S. Cuthbert belongs rather to Lindisfarne and Northumberland, 
and the chief relics of him were in Durham cathedral and 
Bamburgh, but his fame had crossed the Tees, and his position 
rises from 23rd to I3th. S. Wilfrid, by his connection with 
Hexham, was Northumbrian, but as Archbishop of York and 
founder of Ripon minster, he was a Yorkshireman ; moreover, 
he had done in his day more than anyone else to secure that 
Christianity in England should be of the Roman, not of the 
Celtic type: his position rises from 2$th to I7th. S. Hilda, the 
learned abbess of Whitby, rises from soth to i8th: a cluster of 
little churches is dedicated to her in the Whitby district. Good 
John of Beverley was not forgotten in his own country ; he 
rises from 73rd to 3Oth. S. Oswald, the Christian king of 
Northumberland, gave his life fighting with the heathen, 
praying with his last breath for his soldiers : " Lord have mercy 
on their souls," said Oswald as he passed. He rises from the 
24th to the 9th place. S. Robert, the Hermit of Knares- 
borough, has a single dedication. S. William of York came 
too late to have more than one church dedicated to him, and 
this has been demolished. Chiefest among local saints may 
be placed S. Helena, for it was known that her son spent 
considerable time in York, and it was believed that he was born 
there. Of Celtic saints few are commemorated. Of the Irish 


saints, S. Patrick has two dedications, one of them the magnificent 
church of Patrington ; S. Columb, S. Bridget, and S. Sampson 
have one each ; of the Welsh saints, S. David and S. Winifred 
also one each. 


In the following lists the churches of Northumberland and 
Durham respectively are arranged according to the number of 
dedications up to iSoo: 1 omitting dedications which occur but 

once : 



21 I 

13 4 
10 23 

1. Blessed Virgin 


2. S. Michael - 

3. S. Cuthbert - 

4. S. Bartholo- 

mew - 

5. S. Andrew - 

6. Holy Trinity 

7. John Baptist - 
7. S. Peter 

9. S. Nicholas - 

9. All Saints 
ii. S. Helen 
ii. S. Giles 
13. Holy Cross - 
13. S. Anne 
13. S. Maurice - 
13. S. Paul- 
13. S. Wilfrid - 
13, S. Oswald - 
13. S. Mary Mag- 

13. S. Thomas of 

In both counties a very high position is held by S. Michael. 
It is possible that this dedication is a survival of Celtic 
Christianity. In Wales the dedications to S. Michael are 
outnumbered by those to the Blessed Virgin; but the latter 
are mostly found in the English and Flemish districts, and in 

J The statistics are those of Mr John V. Gregory in Archaeological 
Journal^ xlii. 381. 































i. Blessed Virgin 




2. S. Andrew - 



3. S. Michael - 



3. S. Cuthbert - 



3. All Saints - 



6. John Baptist - 



6. S. James 



8. S. Peter 



8. S. Mary Mag- 




10. King Edmund 



1 1. Holy Trinity 



ir. S. Nicholas - 



1 1. S. Helen 



ii. S.Hilda 



ii. S. Margaret - 



ii. S. Thomas of 






churches of modern foundation the former in Celtic districts 
and churches of ancient foundation. In Cornwall the Blessed 
Virgin has 9 dedications, S. Michael 5. It is remarkable that 
S. Peter has sunk in Northumberland and Durham to the 
7th and 8th position respectively, in spite of early and im- 
portant dedications at Monkwearmouth, Jarrow, Lindisfarne, 
Bamburgh, and Brinkburn. S. Andrew may owe his high 

OF sient*. 

position partly to the fact that he is the patron saint of Scotland, 
of which Northumberland for some time formed a part, and 
to^the influence of the important churches of Newcastle, Hexham 
priory, and Auckland ; round Hexham is a cluster of dedications 
to S. Andrew. To S. Bartholomew there were 8 dedications 
in Northumberland, but only one in Durham ; some of the 
Northumberland dedications probably belong to the Bartholomew 

Fame Jsles. S. M 

who was a hermit in the 

Margaret has two 



churches in Durham ; the Christian name of Margaret is still 
very common in the district, perhaps not altogether without 
reference to S. Margaret of Scotland. Considering the excessive 
popularity in Yorkshire of the dedication to All Saints, it is a 
little surprising to find that in the two northern counties it 
occupies an exceptionally low position. 


Of the Lincolnshire churches Precentor Venables gives the 
following list 1 (Churches with but a single dedication are 











































6 15 
6 21 





1. All Saints 

2. S. Peter 

3. S. Andrew - 
3. Blessed Virgin 
5. S. Nicholas - 
5. S. Margaret - 
7. S. Helen 

7. S. Michael - 
9. S. John Baptist 

10. S. James 

11. S. Martin 

12. S. Lawrence - 
12. Holy Trinity 

14. S. Clement - 

15. S. Bartholo- 

mew - 

1 6. S. Edith 

1 6. S. Oswald - 

1 6. S. Thomas of 

19. S. Botolph - 

19. S. Denis 

19. S. John Evan- 

Lincolnshire in early days was either treeless, untilled 
chalk wold or interminable swamp. The natives were 
said by unfriendly neighbours to be web-footed. Anyway, 
though they built many churches, they produced but few saints. 
Of these three appear in the dedications : S. Guthlac, who rises 
from 6oth to 25th; S. Botolph, from 25th to igth; and 
S. 'Hybald or Hygbald (4 dedications), whom Bede mentions, 
1 Archaological Journal \ xxxviii. 390. 

19. S. Leonard - 
19. Holy Cross - 
19. S. Mary Mag- 

25. S. Benedict - 
25. S. Guthlac - 
25. S. Stephen - 
25. S. S within 
29. S. Edmund - 
29. S. Edward - 
29. S. George 
29. S. Giles 
29. S. Hybald - 
29. S. Thomas 


29. S. Vincent - 
36. S. Chad 
36. S. Faith 
36. S. German - 
39. S. Cuthbert - 
39. S. Paul 
39. S. Wilfrid - 











and who seems to have been a good pious man, and probably 
abbot of Bardney, in the seventh century. His mission centre 
was probably the village of Hibaldstow, and his dedications 
are in the village of Hibaldstow and its two neighbours at 
Manton and Scawby ; a fourth dedication is at Ashby-de-la- 
Launde, in South Lincolnshire ; there are no other dedications 
to him in England. A certain amount of northern influence is 
apparent : as in Yorkshire, All Saints takes the premier place 
in the dedications, ousting the Blessed Virgin, who stands 
exceptionally low; S. Helena advances from the igth to the 
7th position ; and S. Oswald from the 24th to the i6th. On the 
other hand, S. Cuthbert and S. Wilfrid lose ground. Others 
who improve their position are S. Clement, S. Benedict, 
S. Vincent, S. Denis, and S. Edith: the latter two, and also 
S. Helen, because of groups of "cluster-dedications." 


The chief dedications of Nottinghamshire churches, as shown 
by Canon Raine, are as follows : 

1. S. Mary the 


2. All Hallows - 

3. S. Peter 

4. S. Helen 

5. Holy Trinity- 

6. S. Wilfrid - 
6. S. Peter and 

S. Paul - 
8. S.John Baptist 
8. S. Michael - 

10. S. Giles - 

11. S. Nicholas - 

12. S. James 

12. S. Lawrence - 
12. S, Martin 
12. S. Oswald - 































1 6. S. Andrew - 5 5 

17. S. Edmund 4 27 
1 7. S, Leonard - 4 15 
19. Holy Rood - 3 21 
19. S. John of 

Beverley 3 73 
19. S.John Evan- 
gelist- - 3 14 
19. S. Mary Mag- 
dalene - 3 13 
19. S. Swithin 3 28 
24. S. Catherine - 2 26 
24. S. Cuthbert - 2 23 
24. S. David 2 43 
24. S. George 2 20 
24. S. Margaret - 2 1 1 

This county is next door to Lincolnshire, but was in the 
diocese of York, having for its cathedral Southwell minster, 
adjoining which the Archbishop of York had a palace. It was 
natural, therefore, that the Yorkshire saints should be com- 
memorated in Nottingham in numerous dedications ; among 
them S. Helena stands fourth on the list with 1 5 dedications ; 
S. Wilfrid has risen from 29th to 6th; S. Oswald from 24th 



to 1 2th; S. John of Beverley has 3 and S. Cuthbert has 
2 dedications. S, Giles, S. Edmund, and S. Swithin have all 
improved their position ; while S. Michael, S. Andrew, and 
S. Margaret have greatly receded. 


The following list of dedications of Kent churches has been 
compiled from the lists of Mr Leland L. Duncan and Mr Arthur 
Hussey. Dedications which occur once only are omitted. 

15. Holy Cross - 5 
15. S. Andrew - 5 
15. S. Augustine 

of Canterbury 5 
15. S. Bartholo- 
mew - 

19. S. Leonard - 
19. S. Clement - 
19. S. Dunstan - 
19. S. Mildred - 

23. S. Catherine - 

24. S. Alphege - 
24. S. Stephen - 
24. Holy Trinity 






1. Our Lady - 116 J 

2. S. Peter - 82 3 

3. All Saints - 38 2 

4. S. Nicholas - 30 7 

5. S.John Baptist 21 6 
5. S. Margaret - 21 n 

7. S. Martin - 18 16 

8. S. Michael - 17 4 

9. S. Lawrence - 14 12 

10. S.James - ii,8&43 

11. S. Mary Mag- 

dalene - 10 13 

12. S. George - 7 21 

13. S. Botolph - 6 25 
13. S. Giles - 6 1 8 

The table shows a considerable rise in popularity of five 
saints. Four of these rise because they are local saints: 
Alphege and Dunstan were both Archbishops of Canterbury ; 
so also was Augustine ; it is possible, however, that some of his 
dedications belong to the theologian, Augustine of Hippo. 
Mildred is almost the typical saint of Kent 1 But why should 
Botolph have six churches dedicated to him so far from the 
fenland ? S. Nicholas rises from 7th to 4th ; S, Margaret from 
i ith to 6th ; S. Martin from i6th to 7th ; S. George from 2ist 
to 1 2th ; Holy Cross from 2ist to i$th ; S. Clement from 32nd 
to 1 9th ; S. Stephen from 3Oth to 24th. There is a drop in the 
position of dedications to the Holy Trinity from the loth to the 
24th place ; of S. Michael from 4th to 8th ; and of those to 
S. Andrew from the 5th to the iSth place; the latter is the 
more remarkable as S. Andrew is the patron saint of Rochester 

1 For her pretty story see Bishop Stubbs in Dictionary of Christian 



No Celtic saints appear above : and S. Botolph is the only 
non-Kentish local saint. Few counties offer so many depar- 
tures from the normal ; the Kentish men and the men of Kent 
had evidently strong opinions of their own on hagiography. 

A comparison of dedications of Kentish churches with a 
list of the images known from wills to have existed in parish 
churches, naturally shows marked divergences, the dedication 
having usually been given centuries before images referred to in 
late wills were set up. In West Kent, Mr Leland L. Duncan 
found that after those of Our Lady, the most common images 
were those of 

2. S. Catherine 

3. S. Christopher 

4. S, Nicholas - 

5. Holy Trinity 

6. S. James 

7. S. John Baptist - 


48 (nearly half the number 
of churches) 



The following tables show the dedications most in favour in 
Wiltshire : it includes several doubtful examples. 1 

1. Blessed Virgin 


2. All Saints - 

3. S. Peter 

4. S. Michael - 

5. S. Andrew - 
5. S.John Baptist 
7. S. Nicholas - 
7. S. James 

9. Holy Trinity 

10. Christ Church 

10. Holy Cross or 


12. S. Leonard - 

13. S. George 
13. S. Paul 
15. S. Giles 

15. S. Margaret - 













































S. Catherine 5 26 

S. John Evan- 
gelist - 5 14 

S. Lawrence - 5 12 

S. Martin - 5 16 

S. Swithun 3 28 

S. Thomas of 

S. Aldhelm - 

S. Anne 

S. Bartholo- 
mew - 

S. Edith of 


23. S. Mary Mag- 
dalene - 2 13 
23. S. Stephen - 2 30 

3 22 

2 100 

2 32 


1 The dedications are given on the authority of Mr J. E. Jackson. 



This is an exceptionally normal county, the order of the 
first eight dedications being the same for Wiltshire as for all 
England. There were few local saints to break into the order, 
the only ones of importance being S. Aldhelm and S. Edith, each 
with only 2 dedications. The northern saints, S. Helen, 
S. Cuthbert, S. Wilfrid, S. Oswald, do not appear on the above 
list ; nor the fenland saints, S. Guthlac and S. Botolph ; nor 
the East Anglian saint, King Edmund ; nor the Midland saint, 
S. Chad ; nor does it contain any Celtic saint 


Mr Bates has printed in vol. Ii. of the Proceedings of the 
Somerset Archceologzcal and Natural History Society all the 
church dedications known in that county. Omitting dedica- 
tions which occur once only, the following is the result: 

1. Blessed Virgin 

2. All Saints 

3. S. Peter 

4. S. Michael - 

5. S. Andrew - 

6. S.John Baptist 

7. S. Paul - 

8. S. Nicholas - 
8. S. James 

10. Holy Trinity 
10. S. Mary Mag- 

12. S. George 
12. S. Leonard - 

14. S. Lawrence - 

15. S. Martin 































1 6. S. Giles - 8 18 

17. S. Bartholomew 6 17 
17. Holy Cross - 621 
19. S. Catherine 5 26 
19. S. John Apostle 5 14 
19. S. Margaret 5 1 1 
19. S. Thomas of 

Canterbury 5 22 

23. S. Augustine 3 30 

23. S. Gregory - 3 38 

25. S. Bridget - 2 47 

25. S. Edward - 2 (?)48 

25. S. Stephen 2 30 
25. S. Thomas 

Apostle 2 30 

As in Wiltshire, the results are of quite normal character, the 
order of the first ten dedications of Somerset being almost identical 
with those of all England : this is largely due to the absence of 
local saints in this county. The special saints of other localities, 
S. Helena, S. Oswald, S. Wilfrid, S. Hilda, S. Aldhelm, S. Edith, 
S. Chad, S. Edmund, S. Botolph, S. Guthlac, S. Swithun, all 
fail to obtain a place in the above list S, Bridget is the only 
Celtic saint. S. George, S. Catherine and S. Margaret all rise 
in popularity. 




The following list has been drawn up from a paper by Mr B. 
Rowe : 

1. Blessed Virgin 

2. S. Peter 

3. S. Michael - 

4. S. Andrew - 

5. All Saints or 

All Hallows 

6. S.John Baptist 

7. Holy Trinity 

8. S. James 

9. S. George 
10. S. Martin 

10. S. Mary Mag- 
10. S. Paul - 
10. S. Petrock - 

14. S. Catherine - 

15. S. Leonard - 
15. S. Nicholas - 
17. S. Margaret - 
17. S. Thomas of 

19. S. Giles 

No account is taken here of numerous cases in which a 
dedication appears in one church only. There are several 
churches of which the dedication is unknown. 

Perhaps one of the most striking features of the list is the 
comparative paucity of Celtic dedications, which is the more re- 
markable as they swarm in the neighbouring county, Cornwall. 
This seems to point to the fact that the Tamar was an " oceanus 
dissociabilis " to the two counties, and that at the chief church- 
building periods the state of feeling between Devonian and 
Cornishman was such that the former had very little use for any 
saints of the latter. S, Michael, however, is to be regarded as 
largely a saint, if only by adoption, of the Celtic Church : and 
he occupies the third position in the list of Devon dedications. 1 
S. Petrock, or Petrox, with 12 dedications, stands high on the 
list. He was of Cornish royal stock, and lived in the sixth century. 

1 On the screen at Ashton, Devon, S. Sitha bears a book in her right hand, 
and a bunch of keys in her left (213). At Mells, Somerset, she carries three 
loaves and a bunch of keys (217). 



19. S John Apostle 





19. S. Lawrence - 





22. S. Gregory - 





23. S. Nectan 



23. S. Pancras 





23. S. Stephen - 





23. S. Thomas 








27. S. Bartholo- 



mew - 





27. S. Edmund - 



27. Holy Cross - 




13 27. S. Swithun - 





31. S. Anne 




53 31. S. Bridget - 




26 31. S. David 





34. S. Brendonus 


1 80 


7 34. S. Clement - 




ii 34. S. Edward - 



| 34. S. Helena 





34. S. Luke 





34. S. Winifred - 





He studied in Ireland, and visited Rome.' On his return he 
landed at Padstow, and then probably visited the parishes where 

E. W. A. 

S. Sitha. S Michael 

Rood-screen at Ashton, Devon, 

his dedications are now found. His relics were long kept in the 
famous ivory casket still to be seen at Bodmin ; in 1 177 they 
were stolen and were carried off to an abbey in Brittany, and 


were only restored through the personal intervention of King 
Henry II. S. Nectan (5 dedications) was one of the many children 
of the Welsh saint, Brynach. It was at Hartland that Githa, 
mother of King Harold, founded a college in honour of 
S. Nectan, by intercession to whom her husband, Earl Godwin, 
had been saved from shipwreck ; the relics of the saint were 
long preserved in Hartland church, which is dedicated to him, 
and his statue is still to be seen on the east side of the church 
tower. There are 3 dedications to S. Bridget of Ireland, 2 to 
S. Brendan, another Irish saint, and 3 to S. David of Wales. 
With the dedications of Devon we may compare those of 
Shropshire, which, though embedded in a Celtic district, has 
hardly one authenticated Celtic dedication, except perhaps that 
of S. Sampson and S. Owen's well at Wenlock. 

In an interesting and valuable paper on Celt and Teuton in 
Exeter? Mr Kerslake has shown that the interpretation put by 
Palgrave and Kemble on the statement of William of Malmesbury, 
that "King Athelstan found the Cornish Britons and the 
English settlers at Exeter living side by side under equal law," 
was erroneous. It was believed by these two historians that up to 
that time the river Exe divided the two nations. But the church 
dedications show that the dividing line was the Roman Foss- 
way, to the north of which the Britons had been driven by the 
invaders coming from the estuary to the south. North of the 
Fossway are churches dedicated to S. Petrock, S. Kerian, 
S. Fancras, S. Paul (Pol de Leon), all distinctively Celtic dedica- 
tions. At Kilkenny also there may be seen two nationalities, 
sharply divided, in what are called " Irishtown " and " English- 
town " ; so also at Galway and elsewhere. 


Mr Cranage, in the last volume of his Churches of Shrop- 
shire^ arranges the known dedications as follows : 

1. Blessed Virgin 42 i I 10. S. Margaret - 6 11 

2. S. Michael - 28 4 ! 10. S. Giles- - 6 18 

3. S. Peter - 26 3 12. S. George - 5 20 

4. S.John Baptist 20 6 j 12. S.Bartholomew 5 17 

5. All Saints - 14 2 \ 12. S. Lawrence - 5 12 

5. Holy Trinity- 14 10 

7, S. Andrew 1 1 5 

8. S. Chad - 7 36 
8. S. Paul 7 9 

12, S. Mary Mag- 
dalene - 5 13 
12. S. James - 5 8 
12. S. Leonard - 5 15 

1 Archaological Journal , xxx. 211. 


1 8. S.John Evan- I 29. S.Agatha 

gelist- - 3 14 ' 29. S. Calixtus 

1 8. S. Nicholas - 3 7 ; 29. S. Eata 

20. S. Alkmund - 2 100 ' 29. S. Gregory 

20. S. Catherine - 2 26 j 29. S. Juliana 

1 80 
1 80 

20. S. Cuthbert - 2 23 j 29. S.Lucy - 137 

20. S. Edith - 2 50 29. S. Mark - I 75 
20. S. Martin - 2 16 29. S. Ruthin - r 180 
20. S. Milburge - 2 87 29. S. Thomas 
20. S. Oswald - 2 24 Apostle - i 30 

20. S. Swithun - 2 28 29. S. Ethelbert - I 49 
20. S. Thomas of 29. S. Helen - i 19 

Canterbury 2 22 i 29. S. Sampson - I 75 
29. Holy Cross - i 21 I 

In the Salop dedications some local saints naturally take a 
prominent place. S. Chad of Lichfield has no less than 7 
dedications. S. Alkmund was a young king of Northumbria, 
who was murdered A.D. 800 ; somehow or other he was buried 
at Lilleshall in Shropshire, but his body was afterwards removed 
to S. Alkmund's, Derby, which subsequently became a famous 
place of pilgrimage. 1 Other of his churches are Whitchurch and 
Shrewsbury, Salop, Duffield (re -dedicated to "All Saints"), 
Blyborough, Lincolnshire, and Aymestry, Hereford. S. Edith 
has 2 dedications ; in the various English churches with this 
dedication it is not always possible to separate those of S. Edith 
of Polesworth from those of S. Edith of Wilton and those of 
S. Edith, the wife of Edward the Confessor and sister of King 
Harold, to whom the Herefordshire village, which still goes 
by the name of Stoke Edith, was granted. S. Milburga (2 
dedications) was a granddaughter of the old heathen Penda, 
king of Mercia, who slew King Oswald. She seems to have 
spent most of her life at Wenlock, where she was abbess. 
When she was pestered by a wealthy suitor, the stream between 
rose high and effectually cut off his importunities. She died 
about 722. 2 

It is interesting to note that Shropshire gave a welcome to 
saints of other localities S. Cuthbert, S. Oswald, S. Eata, all 
of Northumbria; S. Ethelbert of Hereford; S. Swithun of 
Winchester ; S. Thomas of Canterbury ; as well as three Celtic 
saints SS. Juliana, Ruthin, and Sampson. S. Nicholas falls 
from the 7th to the *i8th place, probably because Shropshire 

1 Arnold-Forster, Ibid., ii. 324. 

2 Arnold-Forster, Ibid., ii. 379. 



is an inland county. S. Giles, S. George, and S. Bartholomew 
all rise in popularity. 


With these English counties it may be interesting to 
compare the Welsh county of Pembroke. Of its churches 24 
dedications are unknown. Of the rest the dedications are 
as follows : 

1. Blessed Virgin 

2. S. David 

3. S. Teilo 

3. S. Michael - 
5. S. James 
5. S. Brynach - 
7. S. Dogfael - 
7. S. John Baptist 
7. S. Ismael 
7. S. Nicholas - 
7. S. Peter 

12. S. Andrew 

13. S. Colman 

13. S. Cristiolus - - 2 18. S. Mallteg - - I 
13. S. Lawrence - - 2 i 18. S. Meilyr - - i 
13. S. Madoc - - 2 | 1 8. S. Mynno - - i 
13. S. Martin - - 2 j 18. S. Oswald - - i 
1 8. S. Aidan - - i | 18. S. Petrox - - i 
1 8. S. Ailbhe - - i 18. S. Rheithan - - i 
1 8. S. Bridget - - i 18. S. Rhian - - i 
1 8. S. Caradoc - - i | 18. S. Teloi - - i 
1 8. S. Catherine - - i 1 8. S. Thomas - - i 
1 8. S. Cewyll - - i 18. S. Tudwal - - i 
1 8. S. Clydei - - i 18. S. Tycefyn - - i 
1 8. S. Decuman us - i 18. S. Tysilio I 

1 8. S. Edren - - i 18. S. Usyllt - - i 

In examining the Pembrokeshire list one is struck at once 
with the vast preponderance of Celtic saints, the greater part of 
unknown provenance. Among the best known of them S. David, 
of S. David's cathedral, stands 2nd ; S. Teilo, of Llandaff 
cathedral, is 3rd ; S. Brynach is bracketed 5th ; S. Dogfael and 
S. Ismael are bracketed 7th ; S. Colman, S. Cristiolus, and 
S. Madoc are bracketed I3th ; then come nearly thirty to whom 
but a single church is dedicated. The chief position is held as 
usual by the Blessed Virgin, with 22 dedications ; then come 

22 1 8. 




13 1 8. 




8 1 8. 





1 8. 





1 8. 





1 8. 





1 8. 





1 8. 





1 8. 





1 8. 





1 8. 





1 8. 





1 8. 

Holy Martyrs 


1 8. 





1 8. 















1 8. 





1 8. 




I 18. 










1 8. 





1 8. 










1 8. 





1 8. 






successively S. Michael, S. James, S. John Baptist, S. Nicholas, S. 
Peter, S. Andrew, S. Lawrence, S. Martin, S. Aidan, S. Catherine, 
S. Giles, S. Leonard, Holy Martyrs, S. Oswald, S. Thomas 
the Apostle. These dedications, including 
those to the Blessed Virgin, are no doubt 
due to the immigration of Anglo-Normans 
and Flemings into the county (c. 1 100). To 
this day Pembrokeshire is a double county : 
the northern half is Celtic, the southern half 
English ; the north folk are small men 
speaking Welsh, the latter are big men 
speaking English. The two districts were 
each protected of old by its own line of 
castles ; and to this day when English and 
Welsh meet at market day, there is apt 
to be a free fight. Both in Pembrokeshire 
and in Glamorgan, which latter county 
was divided up among Norman adventurers 
(c. 1090), the number of dedications to the 
Blessed Virgin is far above the average of 
the Welsh counties generally; and many 
of the parishes where her dedications occur 
have not even Welsh names. Indeed, 
a dedication to S. Mary the Virgin may 
be regarded prima facie as of late date. 
Welsh dedications to S. Michael are pro- 
portionally thrice as numerous as in 
England ; and as they occur quite as much 
in purely Celtic as in semi-foreign districts, 
they are probably anterior to any foreign 
occupation. But, undoubtedly, the oldest 
dedications in Wales are those of native 



J. H. P. 

S. Sitha or Zita. 

From painted glass of the 
fifteenth century in Mells 
Church, Somersetshire. 

A comparison of dedications of 
mediaeval churches and chapels with those 
of mediaeval bells leads to some curious 
results. From the time of Charlemagne 

it was common to baptize bells and to give them Christian 
names, like human beings. This is definitely stated on some 
bells, eg. : 


1 Rev. J. T, Evans, Church Plate of Pembrokeshire. 




" I that am struck am called Katherine, rose of the world." 


" I am called the bell of Mary the excellent virgin." 


" I bear the name of Peter who carries the keys for all time." 


" I am called Thomas; my sound, O man, is the praise of Christ." 

In some cases the tenor or other of the bells bears the name 
of the saint to whom the church is dedicated; but far more often 
this is not so. To some extent the order of popularity of the 
saints is similar in the dedications of churches and bells. 







Virgin Mary - 2,335 (i) S.Paul 

326 (9) 

All Saints and 

Holy Trinity - 

297 (10) 

All Hallows - 1,255 ( 2 ) 

S. Margaret 

26l (ll) 

S. Peter and S. 

S. Mary Mag- 

Peter advzncula 1,140 (3) 

dalene - 


S. Michael or S. 

Our Lord - 


Michael and All 

S. Thomas of 

Angels - - 687 (4) Canterbury - 

80 (22) 

S. Andrew - 637 (5) S. Catherine 

62 (26) 

S. John Baptist * 495 (6) S. Anne - 

41 (27) 

S. Nicholas - 437 (7) S. Augustine - 

30 (28) 

S. James the Elder 414(8) S. Gabriel - 


Virgin Mary (i) - 900 
S. John Baptist 

(2) - - Most of 260 

S. Catherine (3) - 170 

Our Lord (4) - 160 

S. Gabriel (5) - - 158 

S.Peter (6) - - 154 

S. Michael (7 )- 1 10 

S. Margaret (8) - 106 

S. Anne (9) - - 90 

Holy Trinity (10) - 80 

S. Thomas of Can- 
terbury (n) Most of 80 
S. Andrew (12) - - 66 
S. Mary Mag- 
dalene (13) - - 52 
S.Nicholas (14)- - 48 
S. Augustine (15) - 43 
S. Paul (16) - - 41 
All Saints (17) - - 40 
S. James the 

Elder (i 8) - - 26 

[ Frequently the Baptist and the Evangelist cannot be distinguished on bells. 


Any very close coincidence, however, between the dedications 
of churches and church bells is hardly to be expected : the 
churches for the most part received their dedications hundreds 
of years before bells were placed in them. On the other hand, 
the minor altars are as a rule much later than the original 
foundation of the church, and in some districts, eg., in Norfolk, 
a large number of coincidences have been observed between 
the dedications of minor altars and those of the bells. As 
regards dedications of the bells, there were special reasons 
why particular saints were in favour. No less than 2,335 
churches and chapels were dedicated to the Blessed Virgin. 
In all these and in every church one of the commonest 
representations was that of the Annunciation, in which the 
personages were the Blessed Virgin and S. Gabriel. Now every 
Christian person was wont at least once a day to repeat the 
words of S. Gabriel : " Ave Maria, gratia plena, benedicta tu in 
mulieribus et benedictus fructus ventris tui " ; and a special 
bell was often set apart to be rung at those hours on which good 
Christians were expected to say their Ave Maria. S. Catherine, 
in church dedications, stands 26th ; in bell dedications she is 
3rd. For this there are two reasons. One is that the bells were 
rung by rope and wheel, and the wheel is the emblem of 
S. Catherine ; the other is that she was apparently the patron 
saint of the London bell- founders, a large number of whose bells 
survive in Essex, Kent, and Sussex. A bell at Theddlethorpe, 
Lincolnshire, has the inscription 


and one at Shapwick, Dorset 


The proportion of bell dedications depends very largely on 
the predilections of the founders. As the London founders 
favour S. Catherine, so the Bristol founders favour S. Anne 
and S. George ; the Bury founders the Virgin Mary ; the 
Nottingham founders the Holy Trinity and Our Lord ; and 
so with the rest 1 The most popular inscription to Our Lord 
at all periods, especially in the Midlands, is 


sometimes with the addition 


1 On Bell Dedications see Walters' Church Bells of England^ pp. 




THE ecclesiastical calendar is but a Christianised version of the 
Fasti of Pagan Rome, feasts of the saints taking the place of 

those of Pagan deities, and the Sunday 
Letter that of the Littem Nundinales* 
For a considerable time, no doubt, the 
two calendars existed side by side; 
the secular calendar or Fasti, and the 
ecclesiastical in which were noted the 
obits of bishops and the birthdays 
of martyrs. A small calendar, the 
earliest on record, records the death 
and burial of some of the popes down 
to Julius L (337-352) and of some 
of the martyrs, chiefly Roman. 
Eusebius wrote the first important 
martyrology, De Martyribus (c. 372) ; 
it was scarce even In the sixth cen- 
tury, and seems no longer to exist. 
It is probable that this treatise of 
Eusebius was translated wholly or in 
part by S. Jerome (c. 4OO). 1 From 
this time onward a stream of calendars 
and martyrologies appeared in the 
Western Church. 2 

It may be of interest to see what 
opinion as to claims. to saintship was 
held by those who compiled the 
Prayer Book of the Church of 

1 See preface to Bishop Forbes* Kalendars 
of the Scottish Church. 

2 On p. 220 an angel is shown relighting 
S. Genevieve's taper, which had been blown 

B. AND c. 

S. Genevieve. 
Kenn rood-screen, Devon, out by a devil. 



I. It includes all the apostles and evangelists. 

II. It includes a large number of saints to whom English 
churches were dedicated before the end of the seventeenth 
century, as follows : 

S. Lucian 

S. Hilary 

S. Fabian 

S, Agnes 

S. Vincent 

S. Blaise 

S. Agatha 

S. David 

S. Chad 

S. Gregory 

S. Benedict of Cassino 

S. Richard de Wych 

S. Alphege 

S. George 

S. Dunstan 

S. Augustine of Canterbury 

S. Boniface 

S. Alban 

S. John Baptist's nativity 

S. John Baptist's decollation 

S. Martin's translation 

S. Swithun 

S. Margaret 

S. Mary Magdalene 

S. Anne 

S. Lawrence 

S. Augustine of Hippo 

S. Giles 

Holy Cross 

S. Lambert 

S. Cyprian 

S. Michael 

S. Jerome 

S. Remi 

S. Faith 

S. Denis 

S. Etheldreda 

All Saints 

S, Leonard 

S. Martin 

S. Britius 

S. Hugh 

Edmund, K.M. 

S. Cecilia 

S. Clement 

S. Catherine 

S, Nicholas 

S. Lucy 

S. Stephen 

Holy Innocents 

S. Silvester 

So far there is a considerable amount of agreement between 
the calendar and the dedications. 

III. On the other hand, a vast number of saints to whom 
ancient churches are dedicated find no place in the Prayer Book 
calendar. Even if we do not take into account those to whom 
few churches are dedicated, the omissions are still most serious. 
In most cases this is not due to the compilers ; they were not 
trying to draw up a brand-new list of saints, but to bring out an 
amended version of the English calendars already in use, 
especially that of the Sarum breviary. Whether it was their 
fault or that of their predecessors, or of both, a list was produced 
of very defective character. Crowds of Celtic saints are com- 
memorated in English dedications, but not in the Prayer Book. 


That was to be expected ; the history of the Celtic Churches was 
a terra incognita till some half a century ago, and is still familiar 
to but few. There are indeed hundreds of worthies of Wales 
and Cornwall, Ireland and Brittany, whose absence we can well 
put up with; but we strongly object to lose S. Patrick, 
S. Columba, S. Bridget, S. Brandon, S. Teilo, S. Ninian, 
S. Constantine. Equally sad was the fate of the history of 
the Anglo-Saxon Church there was little knowledge of it 
and little interest in it till modern days; and so there are 
omitted dozens of the good people who had introduced, or 
worked for, or given their lives for Anglo-Saxon Christianity. 
Among them are S. Cuthbert, S. Oswald, S. Botolph, S. Wilfrid, 
Edward the Confessor, S. Ethelbert, S. Edith of Polesworth and 
S. Edith of Wilton, S. Hilda, S. Werburga, S. Eadburga, 
S. Milburga, S. Osyth, S. Mildred, S. Guthlac, S. Kenelm, 
S. John of Beverley, S. Felix, S. Paulinus. Equal ignorance of 
and indifference to Continental Church history led to the 
omission of S. German of Auxerre, S. Remi, S. Radegund, 
S. Leger, and S. Theobald. Then having shown their contempt 
for the Celtic Church, the Anglo-Saxon Church, and the Gallican 
Church, the calendars omit also a bevy of saints connected with 
the earliest struggles of the infant Christian Church ; so we lose 
the Empress Helena, S. Pancras of Rome and S. Pancras of 
Taormina, S. Eustace and S. Maurice, S. Julian the Hospitaller, 
S. Julitta, SS. Cosmas and Damian, S. Cyril, S. Christopher, 
Anthony the Great, and, finally, the archangel Gabriel. On the 
other hand, the sixteenth-century calendar kindly supplies us from 
the York and other calendars with new saints to whom no 
churches are dedicated ; these are S. Perpetua of Carthage ; 
S. Bede; S. Crispin of Agincourt; S. Prisca, a virgin martyr 
of the ^third century ; S. Valentine, a Roman priest of most 
uncertain history, but with pleasant modern associations ; S. 
Niconiede, a Roman priest and martyr ; S. Enurchus, a printer's 
error for Evortius, Bishop of Orleans in the fourth century; 
and S. Machutus, Bishop of S. Malo in the seventh century, 
the only Celtic saint, except S. David, honoured with a place 
in the Prayer Book calendar altogether a most oddly 
assorted company. We must not forget to add the name 
of King Charles, Martyr, who was included in all calendars 
up to 1859, when the special form of prayer for January 30 
was given up. 

The Prayer Book calendar, as we have it now, owes its ' 
form to two sets of revisers. Those of 1561 comprised Parker, 
Archbishop of Canterbury ; Grindal, Bishop of London ; Dr 
William Bill, and Mr Walter Haddon; it was practically a 


revised version of the Sarum calendar. A second revision, in 
1661, added the names of S. Alban, S. Bede, and S. Enurchus. 

It should be added that for a long time the Prayer Book 
version had a rival in such calendars of the Church of England 
as were not bound up with the Prayer Book. These were 
published by the Stationers' Company under the authority of 
the Archbishop of Canterbury ; this authority was not given up 
till 1832. The Stationers included in their calendars All Souls, 
S. Patrick, and S. Thomas of Canterbury. 

As an example of the utter carelessness which characterises 
the revisions of our calendars we may cite the words of 
Sapientia on i6th December. Many people stoutly believe that 
this is a dedication, and is equivalent to that of the great 
church Santa Sophia at Constantinople. The phrase is simply 
the first two words of the first of seven anthems, which were to 
be sung before the Magnificat at Vespers, from the i6th of 
December to Christmas Eve. The whole antiphon is : 

" Sapientia qua ex ore aUissimi prodisti^ attingens a fine usque 
ad jinem^ fortiter suamterque disponens omnia ; veni ad docendum nos 
viam prudentis? 

Putting the results together, the calendars of Sarum, York, 
and Hereford, and those of the Reformed Church, can but be 
regarded as a record of ignorance of, or indifference to, Church 
history, discreditable alike to the mediaeval churchman who 
drew them up, to the churchmen of the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries who revised them, and to the churchmen of the 
following centuries who have retained them unamended. 1 

But though English churchmen have still to put up with this 
wretched production, attempts to revise it have been made here 
and there. The most drastic is that of the .Irish Church, which 
has solved the difficulty of selection by expunging all names 
of saints except those who have red-letter days," and for whom 
a special collect, epistle, and gospel are provided. 

The Episcopalian Church of Scotland, on the other hand, 
has enriched its calendar by the addition of Celtic saints, 
S. Columba, S. Cuthbert, S. Mungo, S. Patrick, King David, 
Queen Margaret, and others, and one outsider, Bishop Cyril. 

An attempt has also been made to supply the English 
Church with a full-blown calendar. This is printed in the first 
appendix to the sixth volume of Lives of the English Saints^ 
entitled a " Provisional Catalogue of English Saints," and was 
compiled in 1843 by J. H. Newman, afterwards Cardinal, and 

1 An excellent account of the Prayer Book calendar by F. E. Warren 
will be found in the third volume of Hierurgia Anglicana^ pp, 245-59. 


includes a few "eminent or holy persons, who, though not in 
the Sacred Catalogue, are recommended to our religious memory 
by their fame, learning, or the benefits they have conferred on 

Two draft calendars in MS. by Archbishop Cranmer, which 
were never issued, are printed by Messrs Gasquet and Bishop in 
Edward VL and the Book of Common Prayer, pp. 32-34, 
388-394. In the first of these there are 58 holy days, in the 
second 162. In a book of Latin prayers of the time of Elizabeth 
(1560) the number rises to 303; this calendar is practically 
identical with that of the Latin Prayer Book of 1560. 

An interesting calendar of the eighth century is attributed 
to Bede ; it is entitled Calendarium Floriacense^ and is printed by 
Martene ; and probably dates from the last year of Bede's life, 
A.D. 735 : it is reprinted below. 

Between the calendar of Eastern and Western Christendom 
there is the striking difference that the former introduces saints 
freely from the Old Testament. The list includes the whole of 
the prophets, Moses, Joshua, David, Elijah, Job, and very many 
others. A Byzantine calendar is printed in Neale's Introduction 
to the History of the Holy Eastern Church^ ii. 768. 

But to the student of English dedications the calendars of 
primary importance are those of Sarum, York, and Hereford ; 
the first of these is printed below : any additions made to it in 
the Uses of York (1526) and Hereford (1502) are noted (but 
not the omissions that occur in these calendars). Many varia- 
tions occur in the different versions of the Sarum calendar, 
as may be seen by comparing the Sarum calendars printed 
in MaskelPs Monumenta Ritualia Ecclesi& Anglicance with that 
printed by Dr Blunt from a Missal of 1514 in the library of 
Bishop Cosin of Durham. Editions of the calendars for the 
York and Hereford Uses were printed by the Surtees Society : 
they are given in extenso in Blunt's Annotated Prayer Book, 
pp. 130-76. In an appendix to Husenbeth's Emblems of the 
Saints eight calendars are printed in parallel columns, viz., the 
Roman, Sarum, Scottish, Old English, 1 French, Spanish, German, 
Greek. Mr Maskell, in Monumenta Ritualia Ecclesitz Anglicante, 
pp. 186-225, prints two Sarum calendars ; the first, in English, 
may be of the end of the fourteenth century. He also prints 
two months of an English rhymed calendar. 

1 This calendar occurs in the Catholic Almanack for 1687, and in old 
Manuals of 1706 and 1728 ; also in the Paradise of the Soul in 1720. It is 
much fuller than that of Sarum, every day of the year being filled up. It is 
reprinted in Geldart's Manual of Church Decoration and Symbolism. 


In the sixteenth volume of the second edition of Baring- 
Gould's Lives of the Saints is printed a " Celtic and English 
Kalendar of Saints proper to the Welsh, Cornish, Scottish, Irish, 
Breton, and English People," accompanied by notes. 

Canon Christopher Wordsworth has printed in Archceologia, 
vol. li., two calendars, apparently transcripts of mediaeval 
documents. One is the kalendar of Lincoln, and was probably 
drawn up late in the fifteenth century; the other is that of 
Peterborough, and probably belongs to the last half of the 
fourteenth century. 

Other examples of calendars will be found in various editions 
of the Post-Reformation Services and Primers published by the 
Parker Society. R. T. Hampson's Medii Aem Kalendarium 
includes calendars dating from the tenth to the fifteenth century. 
In the fifth appendix to Stanton's Menology of England and 
Wales is a list of 108 calendars. 





I. Circumcision 


6. Epiphany 



10. S. Paul the first hermit 


13. S. Hilary 

14. S. Felix 

1 6. S Marcellus 
l?. S. Anthony 
1 8. S. Prisca 

20. S. Sebastian 

21. S. Agnes 

22. S. Vincent 



28. S. Agnes 



i. Circumcision 



S. Edward 


Translation of S. William 

S. Lucian and his companions 



10. S. Paul, Hermit (York) 





1 8. 






S. Hilary(sfad Remigius, York) 

S. Felix 

S. Maurus 

S. Marcellus 

S. Sulpicius (and Anthony) 

S. Prisca 

S. Wolstan (S. Germanicus, 


SS. Fabian and Sebastian 
S. Agnes 
S. Vincent 
S. Emerentiana ( York) 

Conversion of S. Paul 

S. Polycarp ( York) 

S. Julian (and SS. John and 

Paul, Hereford) 
S. Agnes (apparition of, to 

her parents) 

S. Bathilda 






2. Purification of B.V.M. 



5. S. Agatha 





14. S. Valentine 

1 6. S. Juliana 


1 8. 



JJ}S. Matthias 



1. S. Bridget (and Ignatius, 


2. Purification of B.V.M. 

3. S. Blasius 

4. S. Gilbert (York} 

5. S. Agatha 

6. SS. Vedast and Amandus 




10. S. Scholastica 

1 1. Translation of S. Frideswide 


14. S. Valentine 


16. S. Juliana 

1 8. 



22. S. Peter's Chair at Antioch 


^}S. Matthias 










9. The Forty Holy 



12. S. Gregory 


1 6. 

1 8. 

20. S. Cuthbert 

21. S. Benedict 


25. Annunciation of B.V.M. 







1. S. David (S. Albinus, York] 

2. S. Chad 


5. S. Pieranus (Hereford] 


7. SS. Perpetua and Felicitas 



1 2. S. Gregory the Great 



17. S. Patrick 

1 8. S. Edward, K.M. 

20. S. Cuthbert 

21. S. Benedict 




25. Annunciation of B.V.M. 












i. Visitation of S. Mary ( York} 




3. S. Richard 


4. S. Ambrose 









9. The Seven Virgins 










14. SS. Tiburtius, Vale- 

14. SS. Tiburtius, Valerian, and 

rian, and Maximus 




1 6. 




1 8. 

1 8. 


19. S. Alphege 







23. S. George 

23. S. George 


24. Translation of S. Wilfrid 

( York) 

25. S. Mark 

25. S. Mark 





28. S. Vitalis 

28. S. Vitalis 




30. S. Erkemvald 




i. S. Philip 








Invention of the Cross. 
S. Alexander and 
his companions 

S. Victor 

10. S. Gordian 

12. S. Pancras 

14. S. Isidore 



19. S. Pudentiana 

20. S. Basil 



25. S. Urban 


30. S. Felix 

31. S. Petronilla 

I. SS. Philip and James 


3. Invention of the Cross. S. 
Alexander and his com- 


6. S. John ante portam Latinam 

7. S. John of Beverley 


g. Translation of S. Nicholas 

10. SS. Gordian and Epimachus 

11. (Dedication of Church of 


12. SS. Nereus, Achilleus, and 




1 8. 






SS. Dunstan, Pudentiana 
S. Ethelbert, K.M. (Hereford) 

SS. Aldhelm and Urban 
S. Augustine of Canterbury 
(and Bede, York} 

S. German 

S. Petronilla 








8. S. Medard 

9. SS. Primus and Feli- 



1 1. S. Barnabas 



15. S. Vitus 


17. SS. Diogenes and 


1 8. SS. Mark and Mar- 


19. SS. Gervase and 



22. S. James the Apostle 


24. S. John Baptist 


26. SS. John and Paul 


28. S. Leo 

29. SS. Peter and Paul 


1. S. Nicomede 

2. SS. Marcellinus and Peter 



4. S. Petrock ( York} 

5. S. Boniface and his fellow- 



8. SS. Medardus and Gildardus 

(and William, York} 

9. Translation of Edmund 

the Martyr. SS. Primus 

and Felician 

n. S. Barnabas 
12. SS. Basilides,Cyrinus, Nabor, 

and Nazarius 


14. S. Basil 

15. SS. Vitus, Modestus, Cres- 

centia(andEdburga, York) 

1 6. Translation of S. Richard. 

(SS. Ciricus and Julitta, 
York and Hereford) 

17. (S. Botolph, York and Here- 


18. SS. Mark and Marcellian 

19. SS. Gervase and Prothase 

20. Translation of S. Edward, 


21. (S. Leufred, York and Here- 


22. S. Alban 

23. S. Etheldreda 

24. Nativity of S. John Baptist 

26. SS. John and Paul, Martyrs 

28. S. Leo, P.C. 

29. SS. Peter and Paul 

30. Commemoration of S, Paul 






2. SS. Processus and 






10. The Seven Brethren 

15. S. Cyricus 


1 8. 




25. S. James, brother of 



29. SS. Felix, Simplex, 

Faustinas, and 

30. SS. Abdon and Sennes 


2. Visitation B.V.M. SS. Pro- 
cessus, Martinianus, and 


4. Translation and Ordination 

of S. Martin 










1 8. 






Translation of S. Thomas 

the Martyr 
(S. Grimbald, York and 


(S. Everilda. York} 
The Seven Holy Brethren 
Translation of S. Benedict 
(S. Cletus, Hereford} 

Translation of S. Swithun 
Translation of S. Osmund 
S. Kenelm 
S. Arnulph 

S. Margaret 
S. Praxedes 
S. Mary Magdalen (and S. 

Wandragesil, York and 

S. Apollinaris 
S. Christina 
SS. James, Christopher, and 

S. Anne 
The Seven Sleepers (and S. 

Martha, York} 

SS. Sampson and Pantaleon 
SS. Felix, Simplex, Faustinas, 

and Beatrice 

30. SS. Abdon and Sennen 

31. S. German 





The Maccabees 
S. Stephen, Pontiff 

S3. Sixtus, Felicis- 
simus, and Aga- 




S. Laurence 
S. Tiburtius 


1 6. 

1 8. 




Assumption of S. Mary 

S. Agapetus 

S. Timothy 

25. S. Bartholomew 




S. Augustine 

Passion of S. 




1. S. Peter's Chains 

2. S. Stephen, Pope and Martyr 

3. Invention of Stephen, Proto- 



5. S. Oswald 

6. Transfiguration, SS. Sixtus, 

Felicissimus,and Agapetus 

7. Name of Jesus, S. Donatus 

8. S. Cyriacus and his fellow- 


9. S. Rom anus 
10. S. Laurence 

U.S. Tiburtius (and S. Taunnus, 


13. S. Hippolytus and his fellow- 


14. S. Eusebius 

15. Assumption of the Blessed 

Virgin Mary 

1 6. 

17. Octave of S. Laurence 

1 8. S. Agapetus 

19. S. Magnus 

20. (S. Oswin, York} 


23. SS. Timothy and Apollinaris 

24. S. Bartholomew (and Audoen, 


25. (S. Hilda, YofK) (Deposition 

of S. Thomas of Hereford} 

27. S. Rufus 

28. S. Augustine of Hippo and 


29. Beheading of S.John Baptist 

30. SS. Felix and Adauctus 

31. S.Cuthburga(S.Aidan, York) 








8. Nativity of S. Mary 


i. SS. Prothus and 


14. SS. Cornelius and 


1 8. 

21. S. Matthew 

22. S. Maurice and his 



24. Conception of S. John 




27. SS.CosmasandDamian 


29. S. Michael 

30. S. Jerome 







SS. Giles and Priscus 

Translation of S. Cuthbert 

(and S. Birinus, York} 
S. Bertinus 

(S. Evurtius, York} 
Nativity of Blessed Virgin 
Mary (and S.Adrian, York] 
S. Gorgonius 

SS. Prothus and Hyacinthus 


13. (S. Maurille, Archbishop of 

Rouen, York} 

14. Holy Cross Day. SS. 

Cornelius and Cyprian 

15. S. Nicomedes 

16. S, Edith (SS. Euphemia, 

Lucina, and Geminianus, 

17. S. Lambert 
1 8. 


21. SS. Matthew and Laudus 

22. S. Maurice and his fellow- 


23. S. Thecla 

25. S. Firmin 

26. SS. Cyprian and Justina 

27. SS. Cosmas and Damian 

29. S. Michael 

30. S. Jerome 



r. S. Remedius 


3. Passio duorum 




9. SS. Marcellinus 

10. S. Paulinus 







1 8. S. Luke 









1. SS. Remigius, Germanus, 

Vedast and Bavo, Melorus 
(Amandus and Piatus for 
last two, Hereford] 

2. SS. Thomas of Hereford and 











1 3. 



(S. Francis, York and 

S. Faith 

SS. Marcus and Marcellian 

(SS. Osyth, Marcus, Mar- 

cellus, and Apuleius, Here- 


S. Pelagia ( York} 
S. Dionysius and his fellow- 

Martyrs ( York adds John 

of Bridlington, Hereford 

mentions Rusticus and 

S. Geron and his fellow- 

Martyrs (York adds S. 

S. Nicasius and his fellow- 

(S. Wilfrid, York and Here- 

Translation of S. Edward 

S. Calixtus 
S. Wulfran 

S. Michael of the Mount 
S. Etheldreda 
S. Luke 
S. Frideswide 
(S. Austreberta, York) 
The 11,000 Virgins 

S. Romanus 

SS. Crispin and Crispinian, 
and S. John of Beverley 


OCTOBER continued 




28. SS. Simon and Jude 







8. The Four Crowned 


ii. S. Martin 



1 6. 

1 8. 


22. S. Cecilia 

23. S. Clement 

24. S. Chrysogonus 




29. S. Saturninus 


28. SS. Simon and Jude 

30. S. Germanus 

31. S. Quintin 



1. All Saints 

2. All Souls 

3. SS. Winifred and Eustace 


6. S. Leonard 

7. (S. Willebrord, York and 


8. The Four Crowned Martyrs 

9. S. Theodore 

10. (S. Martin, Pope and Con- 

fessor, York} 

11. S. Martin (and S. Menna, 

York and Hereford} 

12. S. Menna 

13. S. Britius 

14. Translation of S. Erkenwald 

(S. Dubricius, Hereford) 

15. S. Machutus 

1 6. S. Edmund, Archbishop 

17. S. Hugh (S. Anianus, York 

and Hereford) 

1 8. 

20. S. Edmund, King and Martyr 

22. S. Cecilia 

23. SS. Clement and Felicitas 

24. S. Chrysogonus 

25. S. Katharine 

26. S. Linus 


29. SS. Saturninus and Sisinnius 













ii. S. Damasus 




17. S. Ignatius 




21, S. Thomas 


23. S. Eugenia 


25. Nativity of Our Lord 

26. S. Stephen 

27. S. John Evangelist 

28. Innocents 


31. S. Silvester 

I. (SS. Chrysanthus and Daria, 

York and Hereford) 

3. (S. Birinus, Hereford) 

4. S. Osmund 


6. S. Nicolas 


8. Conception of Blessed Virgin 




13. S. Lucy 



16. "OSapientia" 




21. S. Thomas 




25. Nativity of Our Lord 

26. S. Stephen, Proto-Martyr 

27. S. John Evangelist 

28. Holy Innocents 

29. S. Thomas, Archbishop of 



31. S. Silvester 




THE object of consecration of churches, says Hooker, 1 is twofold ; 
first of all it makes them public, /.., no longer private property, 
but the property of God ; and secondly, it signifies the use to 
which the property is to be put it is to be a divine use. So 
also Bingham (viii. 9), that by the consecration of a church is 
meant the devoting or setting it apart peculiarly for divine 
service. Perhaps the earliest definite reference to a consecration 
service is in the rebuke addressed by the Emperor Constantine 
to Athanasius in 335, because "he had celebrated the holy 
mysteries in a church before it was consecrated " ; for this he 
humbly apologised to the emperor. There is a sermon extant 
of S. Ambrose (A.D. 380) entitled De Dedicatione Basilica, and 
in a letter to his sister he speaks of having dedicated a church. 
The great church at Tyre was demolished in the Diocletian 
persecution, and many others shared its fate. But after the 
Peace of the Church they were rebuilt, and Eusebius speaks of 
the solemnisation of "festivals of dedication of churches" in 
every city. Eusebius also describes in detail the dedication 
services of Constantine's great church of the Holy Sepulchre at 
Jerusalem, in which the historian himself took part. Pope 
Hyginus is reported as saying in 138, "Omnes basilicas cum 
Missa debent consecrari." In 324 Pope Sylvester decrees in a 
general synod, " Nullus presbyter Missas celebrare prsesumat, 
nisi in sacratis ab episcopo locis." In the seventh century 
Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury, gives directions as to the 
consecration of a church, and in 816 the Council of Chalcuith 
passed a canon De modo consecrandi ecclesias : and in 1076 it was 
ordered at a Council in Winchester " that mass should not be 
celebrated in churches unless they had been consecrated by 

For all these Christian consecrations there were of course 
Old Testament precedents in the dedications of Solomon's 

1 Hooker, Book V., chap. xii. 


temple (i Kings, chap, viii.), the dedication of the second 
temple (Ezra vi. 16), the solemnities and feasts of dedication 
in the time of Judas Maccabeus, and the dedication of the 
temple built by Herod, of which Josephus gives an account 
(Book XV., chap. xiv.). 

The religious part of the ceremony was performed by clergy 
of episcopal rank. There were indeed occasional instances of 
consecration in emergency by priests, but these were always 
censured and condemned. It was also laid down that a church 
should be consecrated by the bishop of the diocese in which it 
was situated, and not by the bishop of another diocese. 

Special services were prepared and were used (i) When 
the corner stone or foundation stone of the church was laid. (2) 
At the dedication. (3) At each anniversary of the dedication. 
At the dedication the following hymn was sung : 


Urbs Jerusalem beata 
Dicta pacis visio, 
Quae construitur in coelis 
Vivis ex lapidibus, 
Ut angelis coronata, 
Ut sponsata comite. 


Nova veniens e coelo, 
Nuptiali Thalamo 
Praeparata, et sponsata 
Copuletur Domino ; 
Platese et muri ejus 
Ex auro purissimo, etc. 

In Cornwall procedure of dedication was quite different 
from that of mediaeval days, at any rate, so long as the 
usages of the ancient British Church prevailed. " It was 
customary when any holy man, were he bishop or priest, wished 
to found a church or a monastery, that he should come himself 
to the spot on which the future edifice was to be raised, and here 
continue forty days in the exercise of prayer and fasting. This 
done, the ceremony was completed, and all that was required 
by way of consecration was effected." l 

Very similar was the process of consecration of Anglo-Saxon 
churches in the seventh century. About the year 678, Bishop 
Cedd consecrated the monastery and church of Lastingham, 

1 Borlase's Age of the Saints^ 44. 


purposely placed in a remote hollow of the wild Cleveland moors 
of the North Riding. Bede tells us l that he resolved to follow 
the ancient ritual of fasting and prayer before consecration in 
order to purge the site from taint of sin ; and fasted for forty 
days, Sundays excepted, till eventide, when his meal was a crust 
of bread, an egg, and a little milk mixed with water. 

Becon (1512-67), in his Reliques of Rome, gives an account 2 

Consecration Cross. 
Ottery S. Mary. 

of the ceremonies of consecrating a church, which, from its date, 
is worth transcribing : 

" When any church is to be hallowed, this order must be observed. 
First all the people must depart out of the church, and the deacon must 
remain there only, having all the doors shut fast unto him. The bishop 
with the clergy shall stand without before the church door and make 
holy water mingled with salt. In the mean season, within the church 
there must be set up twelve candles burning before twelve (consecration) 

1 Plummer's Bede, i. 175. 

2 Quoted in Maskell's Monumenta Ritualia Ecclesics Anglicance^ vol. i. 


crosses 1 that are appointed upon the church walls. Afterward the 
bishop, accompanied by the clergy and people, shall go thrice about the 
church without ; and the bishop, having in his hand a staff with a bunch 
of hyssop on the end, shall with the same cast holy water on the church 
wails. And the bishop shall come unto the church door, and strike the 
threshold with his crozier staff, and shall say, Tollite portas (Psalm 
xxiv. 7). Then shall the deacon that is within say Quis est iste Rex 
gloria ? To whom the bishop shall answer, Dominus fortis, dominus 
fortis in prtzlio. At the third time the deacon shall open the church 
door, and the bishop shall enter into the church accompanied with a 
few ministers, the clergy and the people abiding still without. Entering 
into the church, the bishop shall say, Pax huic domui. And afterwards 
the bishop, with them that are in the church, shall say the Litany. 
These things done, there must be made in the pavement of the church 
a cross of ashes and sand, whereon the whole alphabet or Christ's cross 
shall be written in Greek and Latin letters. 2 

"After these things the bishop must hallow another water with 
salt and ashes and wine, and consecrate the altar. Afterwards the 
twelve crosses that are painted upon the church walls, the bishop must 
anoint them with chrism, commonly called cream. These things once 
done, the clergy and the people may freely come into the church, ring 
the bells for joy, etc." 

Since the Reformation there has been no prescribed form 
of dedication of churches ; but early and important precedents 
are to be found in the consecration by Bishop Andrewes in 
1620 of a church near Southampton ; that of Fulmer church, 
Buckinghamshire, 3 by Dr Barlow, Bishop of Lincoln, in 1610; 

1 " On Consecration Crosses " see Rev. E. S. Dewick in Arch&ological 
Journal^ Ixv. 1-34. 

2 Alphabets were sometimes inscribed also on bells and fonts. See the 
writer's Fonts and Font Covers, 117, and Walters' Church Bells of England, 
329. There may be a reference to Our Lord's stooping and writing on the 
ground (John viii. 6). In the Sarum ritual the cross seems to be the cross 
saltire, or S. Andrew's cross ; each alphabet begins at the top : on the left 
begins the Greek, on the jight the Latin alphabet. There was thought to 
be in the alphabet a mystical reference to the beginnings or elements of 
Christian doctrine : " Lac vobis potum dedi, non escam," said S. Paul. A 
very similar ritual is mentioned by S. Gregory in the sixth century. See 
MaskelPs Monumenta RituaKa, i. 208, who gives the Sarum ritual in full in 
i. 196. Durandus on Symbolism (edit. Neale), p. 237, gives the form of 
dedication used by S. Dunstan. Martene gives ten forms. 

3 For the Fulmer dedication, see Stow's Chronicle, pp. 997-99* where 
there is a full and very interesting account. The text of Bishop Andrewes 7 
form of consecration is printed as an appendix to Harington, On the 
Consecration of Churches, p. 145. The consecration of S. Katherine Creed 
is described in Rushworth's Historical Collections, ii. 77 ; the so-called 


and S. Katharine Creed, London, and Stanmore, Middlesex, by 
Bishop Laud in 1630 and 1634. 

A form of consecrating churches, chapels, and churchyards 
was passed by the Lower House of Convocation in 1712, "with 
a design to have it established among the offices of the 
Liturgy " ; it was compiled chiefly for the consecration of the 
(50) new churches; it was never, however, legalised. It is 
printed in Harington, Ibid., 179. 

The Irish forms of the Consecration and of the Restaurations 
of churches, dated 1666, are printed in the third volume of 
Hierurgia Anglicana, pp. 188-220 (London, 1904). 

" Popish ceremonies " employed thereat were urged against Laud at his trial : 
one of them was that "as soon as the Bishop came within the church door, 
he fell down upon his knees." "True," said Laud : "it was no more than 
my duty, being a House of Prayer." For the form of consecration used at 
Stanmore Magna, see Oughton's Ordo Judidorum^ ii. 249, and Harington, 



Symbolism of the Plan and Fabric of Churches Orientation of Churches 
Deviation of the Axis of the Chancel Emblems of the Trinity The 
First Person of the Godhead The Second Person of the Godhead 
The Agnus Dei Vesica Piscis The Pelican in Piety Monograms of 
Christ The Fish The Third Person of the Godhead The Blessed 
Virgin The Apostles The Evangelists The Doctors of the Church- 
The Magi The Sibyls The Church The Gallant Ship of Christendom 
The Devil Heaven Hell Mouth The Soul The Cross The 
Crucifix The Crown of Thorns Instruments of the Passion The 
Nimbus The Aureole Prayer Symbolism of Numbers Symbolism 
of Colours Geometrical Figures Pentalpha Fylfot Months and 
Seasons Zodiac Sagittarius Emblems of Mortality. 

"ALL things," says Durandus, "as many as pertain to matters 
ecclesiastical, be full of divine significations and mysteries and 
overflow with a celestial sweetness, if it be that a man be diligent 
in his study of them, and know how to draw * honey from the 
rock and oil from the hardest stone/ 1 Wherefore I, William, 
by the alone tender mercy of God, Bishop of the holy church 
which is in Mende, will knock diligently at the door, if so be 
that the key of David 2 will open unto me, that the King may 
bring me in and show me the heavenly pattern which was shown 
to Moses in the mount" With which pious prcemium Durandus 
set forth to expound in his Rationale the inward and spiritual 
purport of the church and every part of the church, and of each 
and all of its rites and ceremonies and observances. With like 
solemnity, six centuries later, Mr Walcott rebukes those who 
should venture to question the symbolic origin of the planning 
of the Christian church. " It would be difficult," he says, 3 "to 
assign any other reason than symbolical consideration as that 
which influenced our forefathers in laying out the ground-plan 
of their churches; and he is not to be envied who should 

1 Deuteronomy xxxii. 13. 2 Apocalypse iii. 7. 

3 Walcott's Church and Conventual Arrangement^ 61. 


attempt to impugn their attempt to embody holy doctrines in 
external objects and to make the material fabric suggestive of 
Christian verities." Mr Poole 1 goes further still : while by the 
translators of Durandus we are told that not only the plan of 
a church but every detail has symbolic import : 

"The whole fabric of a church, its general plan, and its many 
details, are capable of expressing religious truth in a symbolical language 
of its own. The earthly building is but the symbol of the spiritual 
church, the Heavenly Jerusalem. A Christian church always embodied 
mysteries of the Christian religion ; always shadowed forth ecclesiastical 
polity ; always conveyed instruction in religion and morals. A Gothic 
church, in its perfection, is an exposition of the distinctive doctrines of 
Christianity, clothed upon with a material form; in Coleridge's words it 
is a ' petrifaction of our religion/ Very beautiful is the vision of the 
medieval church of England to the eye of faith. Far away, long 
before we catch our first glimpse of the city, the three spires of the 
cathedral, rising high above the smoke and stir, preach to us of the 
most Holy and Undivided Trinity. As we approach, the transepts, 
striking out crosswise, tell of the Atonement ; the Communion of Saints 
is set forth by the chapels clustering round choir and nave; the 
weathercock bids us watch and pray; the hideous forms that seem 
hurrying from the eaves speak the misery of those who are cast out from 
the Church \ spire, pinnacle, andfinial, the upward curl of the sculptured 
foliage, the upward spring of the flying buttress, the sharp rise of the 
window-arch, the high-thrown pitch of the roof, all these, overpowering 
the horizontal tendency of string-course and parapet, teach us that, 
vanquishing earthly desires, we also should ascend in heart and mind. 
Deep down, profound, unseen, the Church is seated upon the Rock ; 
its foundations are the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ being the 
chief corner-stone. We enter. The triple breadth of nave and aisles, 
the triple height of pier-arch, triforium, and clerestory, the triple length 
of choir, transepts, and nave, again set forth the Holy Trinity. And 
what besides is there that does not tell of our Blessed Saviour :^ Him 
First, in two-fold nature, in the double western door ; Him Last, in the 
distant altar ; Him Midst, in the great Rood ? Close by us is the font, 
for by Regeneration we enter the Church ; it is deep and capacious, for 
we are buried with Christ in Baptism ; it is of stone, for He is the Rock ; 
its spiry cover teaches us, if indeed we be risen with Him from its 
waters, to seek those things which are above. Before us in long-drawn 
vista are massy piers, which are the Bishops and Doctors of the Church ; 
each is of many members, for many are the graces in each saint ; round 
the head of all is delicate foliage, for all were plentiful in good words. 
Beneath our feet are the badges of worldly pomp and glory, the charges 
of prelates and nobles and knights, in the presence of God as worthless 
dross. Overhead rises indistinct in the gloom the high-pitched roof; 
angels on the hammerbeams, angels on the collars, angels on the 

1 Poolers Appropriate Character of Church Architecture^ pp. 18, 19, 40. 


cornice ; a great host of faithful witnesses, arrested as it were midway 
in heavenward flight, spirits of those who, generation after generation, 
have gathered within the sacred walls, cherubim and seraphim, thrones 
and principalities and powers, quick and dead, church militant and 
church triumphant, gathered together in common prayer and worship, 
with psaltery and lute and harp singing the praises of Him who is 
worthy to receive blessing and glory and wisdom and thanksgiving and 
power and might. 1 Down below, in the rich deep glass of the windows, 
is yet ^ another multitude of saintly forms, each in fair niche enshrined. 
Here is the glorious company of the Apostles ; the goodly fellowship of 
the Prophets ; the noble army of Martyrs ; the jubilant chorus of the 
Virgins ; Kings who have exchanged an earthly for a heavenly crown ; 
Doctors of the Church who have taught the faith ; Bishops who have 
given in a glad account to the Shepherd and Bishop of Souls. Passing 
up the nave, through serried ranks of the Church Militant, we reach the 
Rood Screen, the barrier between it and the Church Triumphant, thereby 
typifying Death, the portal of Life Eternal. High above it hangs on His 
triumphal cross the image of Him who by His death has overcome 
death ; on it are portrayed Saints and Martyrs, His warriors, who fight- 
ing under their Lord have won their rest, and have entered into 
immortality. The screen itself glows with gold and crimson ; with 
gold, for they have on their heads golden crowns ; with crimson, for they 
passed through the Red Sea of Martyrdom. Through the delicate 
traceries of the screen we catch faint glimpses of the Sanctuary 
beyond. There are massy stalls, for in Heaven is eternal rest : there 
are the sedilia, emblems of the seats of the Elders round the Throne ; 
there is the piscina, for they have washed their robes and made them 
white ; there, heart and soul and life of all, is the altar with the ever- 
burning lights and golden carvings and precious jewels ; even Christ 
Himself, by whose only merits we have admission to the inheritance of 

Such is an English church as seen by the eyes of a pious 
churchman. 2 

Much of its mysticism and of its beauty dissolves in analysis. 
Transept and aisled nave, pier-arcade and clerestory originally 
were not designed to express the dogma of the Trinity; 
aisles and clerestories were employed in basilicas in pre-Christian 
times ; the triforium arose from the necessity of roofing a vaulted 

1 More than a hundred carved figures ornament the cornice of the roof 
of Carlisle choir, and many texts in black letter may still be read. " Lift up 
your hands in the sanctuary and bless the Lord." " Praise ye the name of 
the Lord." " Praise God in His sanctuary." " Exalt ye the Lord our God, 
and worship at His footstool." " O magnify the Lord with me, and let us 
exalt His name together." 

2 Introduction to Neale and Webb's translation of the first book of 
Durandus* Rationale. 


aisle ; the arch was pointed to make that vaulting easier ; the 
pinnacle is there to load the buttress ; the flying buttress to 
transmit the thrusts of a cross-ribbed vault ; the roof is high- 
pitched to throw off the rain and snow of a northern clime ; 
sedilia, piscina, altar, chapels all find their origin in the needs of 
ritual, not in symbolism ; and so with the rest Though, however, 
it is possible greatly to exaggerate the mystical significance of 
the planning of the mediaeval church, yet it would be a mistake 
to imagine that all symbolism is ex post facto. Of all emblems 
that of the Cross is of pre-eminent sanctity to the Christian. 
There can be no doubt that many great churches were built 
cruciform that their very plan should make the ground bear 
everlasting witness to the manner of the death of Christ. Again 
and again we see the express instruction given that such and 
such church shall be built " in modum cruets!' Such an ever- 
present remembrance of the Crucifixion could not but find favour 
with the mediaeval ecclesiologist. Yet, strange to say, this 
lively and abiding symbolism of the cross-plan is the exception, 
not the rule. Even in early Christian days the great majority 
of the basilicas, whether in Rome or Ravenna, show no signs of the 
cruciform plan. In mediaeval days, indeed, almost all the greater 
churches were cruciform in plan. With the parish churches it was 
not so. In the twelfth century, indeed, and here and there 
sporadically in the following centuries in England and in 
Normandy, small cruciform churches occur. But far more 
common from the first was the non-transeptal plan ; and as in 
later days the parish churches grew in size and importance, the 
tendency was more and more to increase their area by the 
addition, not of transepts, but of aisles. Boston church, not S. 
Mary Redcliffe, Bristol, was the normal type of the English 
parish church in the later Gothic. Even in the greater churches 
respect for the cruciform plan seldom hindered the builders from 
obliterating it to the eye by a conglomeration of later chapels. 
In many a parish church also, originally cruciform, e.g., S. Martin's, 
Leicester, in later days the aisles were rebuilt as broad as the 
transept was deep, and the transept was thrown into the 
broadened aisle, thus obliterating the cruciform plan. Uni- 
versality then is lacking in the symbolism of the cruciform plan, 
where above all it might be expected to be present. 

Next to the symbolism of the cross, perhaps nothing 
presents itself of more mystic import than the orientation of the 
plan, with altar to the east. Yet, strange to say, the orientation 
of the church was precisely the reverse in many early Christian 
basilicas ; in the great majority of these it was the main entrance, 
not the altar, which was at the east At Rome the churches of 


S. Peter, S. Paul extra muros} and S. Lorenzo as they were origin- 
ally built, as well as over forty others, including the patriarchal 
basilicas of S. John Lateran, "omnium urbis et orbis ecclesiarum 
mater et caput? and S. Maria Maggiore, had the altar to the 
west ; only about half a dozen of the Roman basilicas had an 
eastern apse. In fact the first churches followed the orientation 
of the Roman temples, in which Vitruvius recommended that 
the entrance should be to the east. It was not till the eighth 
century that the eastern replaced the western apse generally. 
At all times the Italians attached little importance to orientation. 
At Caen also, while the Abbaye-aux-hommes, S. Nicolas and 
S. Jean, all point to the east, the Abbaye-aux-dames, S. Gilles, 
S. Pierre, and Notre Dame all point to the south. 

But whether a church is orientated west or east, the orienta- 
tion is often inaccurate. Thus at Rome, out of forty-one 
basilicas which point to the west, only twenty-one point due 
west. Similarly, of mediaeval churches which are set eastward, 
a considerable number are some points north or south of east. 
It has been suggested that in these latter the chancel is 
orientated to the point where the sun rises on the festival of the 
saint to which the church is dedicated. This may be true in 
some cases, but the number of contrary instances is too large 
to warrant so wide-sweeping a generalisation. 

Another curiosity of planning is the not infrequent occurrence 
of a deviation of the axis of the eastern limb of the church to 
north or south. This is thought to be symbolical of the fact 
that Our Lord, dying on the cross, " bowed His head and gave 
up the ghost" And as the tradition is that His head sank on 
His right shoulder, the axis of the chancel was deflected in 
memoriam to the north. This hypothesis has received much 
support ; eg., recently from M. Victor Mortet, M. Brutails, 
M. Male, M. Anthyme S. Paul, and to some extent from De 
Caumont, Viollet-leDuc, and M. Camille Enlart. It is rejected 
by M. Choisy 2 and by Comte Robert de Lasteyrie. 3 An almost 

1 The first church of S. Paul, that of the Emperor Constantine, had its 
doorway to the east in the Via Ostiensis. Its foundations have been 
found ; it was a small church. But in 386 it was rebuilt on a much 
larger scale, and the altar was set eastward. The Bollandists have a legend 
that Dunstan, Archbishop of Canterbury, seeing a church that had been 
built on another axis, swung it round to the east by a push from his shoulder, 
thus placing it in its right position. 

2 Histoire rf Architecture > ii. 473- 

3 For an exhaustive account of the facts and theories see Comte de 
Lasteyrie's "La deviation de ?axe des eglises, est-elle symbolique?""io. the 
M'emoires de tacadtmie des inscriptions et belles-lettres >, vol. xxxviu, 2nd 
Part ; Paris, 1905 (305). 


fatal objection is that not one of the liturgists of the Middle Ages 
mentions the deviation of the axis. Now it is a first principle of 
ecclesiastical symbolism not to suppose symbolical intent or to 
accept an explanation founded on such supposition if it be not 
proved to be contained in the writings of the Fathers or of the 
ancient liturgists. So far from this, Durandus, one of the most 
eminent of the latter, says that the chancel ought to look straight 
to the east, " recte inspiciat versus orientem> videlicet versus ortum 
solis equinoctialem? Nevertheless, if the deviations were always 
to the north, the hypothesis would be admissible ; one could only 
conclude, not that it was not there, but that it had in some 
unaccountable way escaped notice by the ancient liturgists. In 
most cases where it occurs the deviation is to the north. It is 
curious that out of twenty Roman basilicas which do not point 
true west, only two lie to the south of west ; all the rest tend 
more or less to the north-west M. Brutails 1 asserts that almost 
invariably the deviation is to the north in the mediaeval churches. 
De Caumont 2 observed a deflection to the north in more than 
a hundred churches of the twelfth and thirteenth century. In 
England also a marked deviation to the north is common ; e.g., 
in the cathedrals of Lichfield, Bristol, and Old S. Paul's, and the 
abbey churches of Whitby, Bridlington, and S. Mary's, York. 
On the other hand, in several important English churches, e.g., 
the cathedrals of Canterbury and York and the abbey churches 
of Tynemouth and Selby, there is an equally marked deflection 
to the south. So also in France, Comte de Lasteyrie gives a long 
list of churches with a southern deviation of axis, including 
Domfront, La TrSnite at Angers, Le Dorat, S. Gilles, S. Germer, 
the Kreisker, Vzelay, S. Germain-des-Pres, Nimes cathedral, 
and S. Hilaire de Poitiers, S. Nicholas-du-Port near Nancy, 
Preuilly, and S. Savin. If, then, deviation of axis be significant 
of the inclination of the head of Our Lord, we can only say that 
the tradition is by no means uniform. Moreover, representations 
of the agony of Our Lord on the cross were exceedingly rare 
till the twelfth century or later ; in that century Our Lord was 
still usually represented on the cross with body straight and 
head high, not leaning on the right shoulder. Now of the 
churches mentioned above, some were set out in the eleventh 
century. Is it likely that their planning had reference to a scene 
which it still pained good Christians to represent ? 

What, then, is the rationale of a phenomenon of so frequent 

occurrence? In some few cases, doubtless, especially in town 

churches, the deviation of the axis of the chancel was due, like 

numerous other irregularities of plan of common occurrence, 

1 Uarchtologie du moyen age } 9, 8 Ab&tdaire, 299. 


simply to the cramped nature of the site. Such an explanation, 
however, would hardly hold of a monastic church, built in the 
open country on an unencumbered site. In such a case as this 
some other explanation must be looked for. Now in mediaeval 
building bad work was done as well as good, just as at present ; 
some churches were built with rock-like foundations, like Amiens ; 
others, like the nave, choir and transept of Peterborough in the 
twelfth century, the west front in the thirteenth, the eastern 
chapels in the fifteenth, with hardly an apology for a foundation. 
So it was also with the planning. Of two twelfth-century 
churches, Dorchester priory and Romsey abbey, the former is 
set out with perfect accuracy, while the latter is casual in the 
extreme, varying almost from bay to bay. Some of this was 
due simply to carelessness, though some allowance must be 
made for lack of instruments of precision. With the aid of these 
it is now possible for two gangs of miners starting many miles 
apart to bore through the Alps, and make their tunnels meet 
within a few inches. Without such aid the old men found it 
difficult to keep a long church straight. In some English 
churches more than 500 feet separates east and west A slight 
initial error in the setting out would assume formidable 
dimensions. There was besides a special difficulty nearly 
always present when a new choir was built ; this was the survival 
of the old choir. Nowadays we pull down before we build up. 
But in the Middle Ages it was the rule to retain the old building 
for worship while the new one was being built. If the plans of 
Canterbury be examined, it will be found that the original choir, 
that of Lanfranc, was of the same breadth as the nave. But the 
next choir built, that of Conrad, is broader than the nave. This 
was to allow its being built on either side of and around 
Lanfranc's narrow and low choir. The same is the case at 
Selby, Lincoln, York minster, Tideswell church, and frequently 
elsewhere. In such a case it was impossible to see whether the 
axis of the new choir was being set out precisely in the line of 
that of the old nave. With modern instruments there would be 
little difficulty. But the old men had not modern instruments. 
In most cases, not in all, they did their best. Certainly the 
better of the builders had no wish to build a crooked church. 
Indeed it is recorded that the architect of a church at Metz, 
built between 1371 and 1409, in which there is a pronounced 
deviation of axis, " ashamed of having made his work so crooked, 
died of grief and distress? Mr Choisy x reminds us that at 
S. Peter's, Rome, the builders had a narrow escape of getting the 
nave out of line with the choir. Nor is such a contingency 

^Histoire ^Architecture^ ii. 437. 


impossible even now, in spite of our modern appliances. At 
Aberystwyth, there has been built recently by degrees a rather 
long, cruciform church. When the temporary east wall was taken 
down, it was found that the new choir had a most perceptible 
list to the south. If that can happen nowadays, we need not be 
surprised that many a mediaeval church is crooked. When the 
present choir of York minster was set out late in the fourteenth 
century, measurements to the west were stopped by the still exist- 
ing twelfth-century choir. In this last-mentioned choir again, it 
had been equally difficult to obtain correct alignment ; for when 
it was begun, there was standing an eleventh-century choir. 
Before that there had been one, if not more, Anglo-Saxon choirs. 
Every one of these choirs tended to produce errors of alignment 
in its successor, and these errors are summed up in the crooked- 
ness of the present choir. With such a history as this behind it, is 
it surprising that there is in York choir the insignificant deviation 
to the south of two feet four inches ? Selby abbey choir, in the 
same way, is the successor of the Norman choir and that probably 
of one or more Pre-Conquest choirs ; here there is a deviation of 
five feet to the south. So with many others. 

There is, however, a class of churches to which these con- 
siderations apply with less force, viz., homogeneous structures, 
built " d'un seul jet? Some few of our smaller churches fall 
into this category, but very few indeed of the great cathedral, 
monastic, or collegiate churches ; of the latter Salisbury cathedral 
is the chief example. In the He de France Gothic, on the 
other hand, this class is comparatively large ; it includes great 
cathedrals, such as Notre Dame, Paris. But even these churches 
are hardly ever, if ever, homogeneous throughout. Closer in- 
spection reveals, e.g., in Notre Dame, that the church was really 
built in sections. Now when a section was built, e.g., the choir, 
or the choir, transepts, and eastern bays of the nave, then, in 
order to enable the section completed to be used for worship, it 
would be enclosed to the west by temporary walling, and the 
presence of this screen of masonry would make accuracy of 
alignment difficult. On he whole, we conclude that it is quite 
unnecessary to invoke symbolism as an explanation of the 
deviation of the axis of the eastern limb of a church. 

While, however, symbolism cannot be proved to have had 
any ^ considerable influence in determining the plan of the 
mediaeval churches, it was undoubtedly employed to a very 
great extent elsewhere ; and a very great amount of mediaeval 
art is quite unintelligible without some acquaintance with the 
symbolic import of the representations. To some of the more 
important of these we now turn. 




The Trinity is hardly ever represented in Norman sculp- 
ture. In Gothic days the Trinity is a group in which the 
First Person in human form holds in front of him the crucified 
Son, and a dove issues from his mouth, or from the mouths both 
of Father and Son. This is very common in the later stained 
glass, and on fonts and bosses (3). 

A favourite geometrical emblem is that shown below ; 
which reads "The Father is not the Son, the Son is not 
the Holy Ghost; the Holy Ghost is not the Father; the 
Father is God, the Son is God, and the Holy Ghost is God." 
Another device consists of three circular rings interlaced, and 
inscribed Trinitas Unitas. Cf. 288, 276. 


God the Father is not represented by a full-grown figure 
before the thirteenth century; in the sixteenth century He 
often wears pontifical robes and a tiara. The First Person 
occurs more often in Old Testament than in New Testament 
scenes; of the latter the chief are the Baptism, the Transfigura- 
tion, the Agony in the Garden, and the Transfiguration. The 
earliest representation is that of the Divine Hand issuing from a 
cloud : this occurs in a tomb in the Catacombs, dated A.D. 359, 
in which Moses Is shown receiving from God the tables of the 
Law. The reference may be to such texts as " His right hand 
and His holy arm hath gotten Him the victory"; "Thy hands 
have made and fashioned me " ; " Thou openest Thy hand, they 
are filled with good " ; " The works of His hands are. verity and 
judgment." The Divine hand appears in the Bayeux tapestry 


over the church of S. Peter; in the Romsey crucifix; on the 
Norman font in Lenton church, Notts. 1 


The Second Person of the Trinity is represented symbolically 
in early Christian art as Orpheus and as the Good Shepherd ; 
also as the Lamb of God ; by the Cross, by the Alpha and 
Omega, by the fish, rarely by the lion, and by various monograms. 
In Anglo-Norman sculpture three representations alone occur: 
the Lamb, the Cross, and I.H.C. In the early days of 
Christianity Christ is always represented as a youth, a beardless 
youth, an Orpheus, or a Good Shepherd ; in mediaeval art He is 
no longer a youth : He is the Man of Sorrows. One marvels 
at the change. Unspeakable were the horrors of the mediaeval 
life ; but were they worse than life in the Catacombs, with daily 
prospect of torture and martyrdom ? Nor is it easy to com- 
prehend why Orpheus was such a favourite of symbols of Christ 
in the Catacombs. It is true that his return from the shades 
with his lost Eurydice was taken in later days to typify Christ's 
sojourn in Hades as amplified in the Gospel of Nicodemus ; but 
in the Catacombs this scene never occurs. It is always the same, 
Orpheus with his lyre among the listening beasts. After the 
third century Orpheus disappears from Christian art Perhaps 
the reason was that this representation had great vogue under 
the last Antonines, especially Alexander Severus, and was 
depicted with such frequency "in Pagan mosaics and pavements 
all over the empire that it did not present to censorious eyes 
any Christian significance. Even in remote Britain, Roman 
pavements had the conventional representation of Orpheus ; e.g., 
at Barton, Wilts., Horkstow and Winterton, Lincolnshire. The 
most ancient symbol of Christ is the Good Shepherd bearing on 
His shoulder the sheep that was lost ; in the end this entirely 
supplanted that of Orpheus. This symbol also was without 
import to a Pagan, and might escape the outrage which would 
have followed any attempt to portray Our Lord in person. The 
symbol of the Good Shepherd died out before the eleventh 
century, and does not reappear till the sixteenth century ; even 
then it is rare. But in the Catholic Liturgy the imagery of the 
Good Shepherd has never disappeared, for the " Ordo Commen- 

1 In modern Jerusalem may be seen rudely painted (or colour-washed) 
over the main doorway of many houses a large representation of a hand. 
It is called the "hand of power," the idea being that it is the Hand of God 
stretched forth in blessing. G. C. N. 



dationis Animae " runs " Constituent te Christus Filius Dei vim 
intra paradisi sui am&na virentia et inter oves suas verus ille 
Pastor agnosc&t? 

Another very ancient symbol is that of the Vine a symbol 
which had been employed greatly in the Old as well as in the 

Agnus Dei. 
South Brent, Devon. 

New Testament It was very common in the decorations of the 
Roman houses, and could therefore be employed with a 
Christian import without danger. The vine is exceedingly 
common in the early Christian art of the West ; it is yet more 
common in Byzantine art; so much so that when one ^sees the 
vine in western Romanesque there is almost a prima facie reason 


to believe that it is of Byzantine origin. So sacred was the 
vine to the early Christians that its presence alone was sufficient 
to symbolise the Christian faith ; eg., on the tomb of Constantia 
at Rome. 

Naturally Christ appears very frequently as the Lamb of 
God, "Agnus Dei." In the Apocalypse this symbol occurs no 
less than twenty-nine times. It is to be noted, however, that in 
early Christian art the Lamb was not a symbol of Christ, but 
of the soul of the Christian here on earth, or brought back 
to the fold by the Shepherd, or listening to the instruction of 
the Church at the feet of his gentle Master; more rarely it 
represents the soul in Heaven. It is not till much later that 
the Lamb became the symbol not of the Christian, but of Christ. 
In the twelfth century the Lamb occurs with cross and nimbus. 
In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries the Lamb occurs with 
cross, nimbus, and chalice, e.g., Kirkburn font, Yorkshire ; or with 
cross, nimbus, and banner of victory, e.g., Helpringham font. In 
the thirteenth century occurs the Lamb of the Apocalypse with 
seven horns and seven eyes opening the book with the seven 
seals ; also, rarely a Lamb with horns. In the fifteenth century 
a Lamb with nimbus occurs, resting on a closed book. It was 
common to regard the sacrifice of Isaac as typifying that of 
Christ. This was rendered more plausible by a little " accommo- 
dation " of the two scenes. On the one hand Isaac may be seen 
bound on a cross, with a ram whose horns are caught in the 
thicket ; on the other the " Agnus Dei " may be a horned lamb 
or even a goat 


In the Romanesque of the Continent lintelled doorways are 
far more common than in England. Where such exist, the 
tympanum above the lintel and below the relieving arch affords 
an excellent field for sculpture. From the thirteenth century 
our doorways were less and less frequently constructed with 
lintel andtyrnpanum, and consequentlysculptured ornamentabove 
doorways ceases. Where the tympanum has figure sculpture, 
the favourite representation is the glorified Christ, seated on a 
throne, and holding a book in His left hand, while His right 
hand is raised in the act of benediction ; e.g., Adel, Yorkshire ; 
Prestbury, Cheshire; Essendine, Rutland all of the twelfth 
century. " I am the door," said Our Lord ; it was natural, 
therefore, that the usual sculpture above the doorway should be 
that of Our Lord. Above the porch the Crucifixion is not 

Z53 " 







infrequent ; but over doorways it is nearly always the Glorified 
not the Crucified Saviour that is depicted. 


As has been said, Our Lord in Glory is represented as 
seated on a throne. Now the prophet Ezekiel (i. 26) writes 
"And above the firmament there was the appearance of a 
throne - and upon the likeness of the throne there was the 
likeness as the appearance of a man above upon it. . . And 
I saw as it were the appearance of fire, and it had brightness 
round about As the appearance of the bow that is m the cloud 
in the day of rain, so was the appearance of the brightness round 
about This was the appearance of the likeness of the Glory of 
the Lord/ 1 In the Apocalypse (iv. 2) the Great White Throne 
is ao-ain described" And behold, a throne was set in heaven, 
and One sat on the throne. ... And there was a rainbow round 
about the throne, in sight like unto an emerald. Now m 
Norman and Gothic sculpture the figure of Our Lord is very 
frequently enclosed in a border of pointed oval shape. It may 
well be that this oval or mystic almond, as it is also called, may 
be intended to symbolise the Glory of God. In later Gothic art, 
instead of a geometrical border, it often becomes a glowing, 
nebulous splendour, such as can well be represented in stained 
glass. Another name for it is vesica piscis, given to it because of 
its supposititious resemblance to the bladder of a fish the fish 
being one of the emblems of Christ. The Vesica Pisris is used 
both of the three Persons of the Godhead and of the souls of the 
blessed 1 (255). 


The symbol of the PELICAN is exceedingly common in 
mediaeval art. It had been noticed that at the top of its long 
bill the bird has a crimson spot. This was enough for the 
mediaeval naturalist, 6 <vcrioAo'yo?. The pelican, he says, feeds its 
young with blood from its own breast. And when mediaeval 
naturalist and mediaeval theologian join hands, we get this 
edifying comment from S. Augustine and others on Psalm cii. 6 : 
" I am like a pelican in the wilderness" "The pelican,' 1 we are 
told, "fervently loveth her young birds. Yet when they be 

1 It may be noted here that it was usual to represent God the Father, 
Our Lord, and the apostles with bare feet, but not the Blessed Virgin or 
the saints. 


haughty and begin to wax hot, they smite her in the face and 
wound her, and she smiteth them and slayeth them. And 
after three days she mourneth for them ; and then striking 
herself in the side till the blood runs out, she sprinkleth it upon 
their bodies, and by virtue thereof they quicken again. In like 
manner Christ was beaten and buffeted by the children of men, 
and yet shed His blood to give them eternal life." So, in 

Pelican in Piety. 
Aldington, Kent. 

memory of the love and sacrifice of Christ, He is called by 
Dante nostro pelicans Shakespeare, in Hamlet, re-echoes the 
ancient fable: 

" To his good friends thus wide Fll ope wy arms, 
And like the kind, life-giving pelican, 
Refresh item with my blood." 

The Rites of Durham describes "/* goodly fine lectern of 
brass, with a great pelican richly gilt, billing her blood out of her 
breast to feed her young ones" 

, 33 . ''. ..', : ' ' -'. . '. 

2 5 8 



Various monograms arose from the selection of different 

letters of the name of 
Jesus Christ, whether 
written IHCOUS 
X/wrbs. Of these the 
most famous is that 
which appeared to 
the Emperor Con- 
stantine, outshining 
the sun in splendour, 
while a voice was 
heard, "In hoc signo 
vinces" This the 
emperor placed on 
the standard or lab- 
arum of the Roman 
legions in place of 
the ancient eagle. 
It remained in use 
under all the Byzan- 
tine emperors. It 

consists simply of the first two letters of the word XPICTOS; 

X =s cA, and P = r. Instead of 

this, from the beginning of the 

twelfth century a monogram 

taken from the first three 

letters of IHCOUS, or L/o-ous, 

becomes common ; Le., LH.C 

or I.H.S; When the latter of 

the two became common in 

the Western Church, it was 

taken to mean also " lesus 

Hominum Salvator/' "Jesus 

the Saviour of Mankind," and 

became in consequence yet 

more popular. Another 

monogram, found in the Cata- 
combs, is formed by combin- w M 

ing the initial letters of I^crovs 

X/HO-TGS. Numerous other East Harlin & Suffolk: Rood-screen. 

combinations occur. 

Labarum of Constantine. 



The fish is employed as a symbol of Our Lord with great 
frequency in ^ Early Christian and Early Romanesque art. There 
is nothing Biblical about its origin ; and it is as far removed as 

j. H. P. 

Monograms of the Sacred Name. 

i, 2. From mediasval embroidery. 3. From painted glass, Thaxted Church, 
Essex. 4, 5. The mystical fish, from the Catacombs at Rome. 

possible from the poetical imagery of the Lamb, the Vine, the 
Lion. It is of purely literary origin. It was found that the 
letters of the Greek word for "fish," JX6YS, could be ampli- 
fied into lyo-ovs X/HOTOS OeoTj Ytbs Sw-np ; ?>., " Jesus Christ, Son of 


God, Saviour." Augustine, Tertullian, Clement of Alexandria, 
all accept this interpretation, and speak of the fish as a symbol 
of Our Lord. The Greek Church never adopted it. 

The Holy Ghost appears chiefly in representations of the 
Creation, moving on the face of the waters, and at the 
Annunciation and the Baptism. The Holy Spirit is usually 
represented by a dove ; l e.g., on the Norman font at Kirkburn, 
Yorkshire. An instance occurs as early as A.D. 359. From 
the tenth century the Holy Spirit sometimes appears in human 
form, with a roll or book held in the hand. A dove of carved 
wood was often placed on the summit of a font cover. But 
since it was written, "Be ye harmless as doves? the dove is 
also one of the symbols of the Christian believer. It was also 
an emblem of peace and rest ; for it is written, " that I had wings 
like a dove ; for then would I flee away and be at rest'.' 

M. L, 

Coronation of the Blessed Virgin. 

Boss in York Minster. 
1 Matthew iii. i6j Luke iii, 22, 



The emblem of the Blessed Virgin, especially in the scene of 

S. Peter. S, Andrew. S. James ye more. S. Johan. S. Thomas. S. James ye less. 

J.'.H. P. 

S. Phylypoe. S. .Barthylmew. S. .Mathewe. S. Jude. S. Symoru S, Mathyas. 

the Annunciation, is the lily, which signifies spotless purity. 
But in the Song of Songs the mouth of the Beloved is com- 
pared to a lily, the reference being plainly to red lips. The 


flower referred to is probably neither the Lilium candidum 
nor the Lily of the Valley, but the scarlet anemone, which 
grows plentifully round Jerusalem and in Galilee. Often she is 
crowned The Coronation of the Virgin is very frequently re- 
presented, e.g., on bosses in York minster (260), Worcester 
cloister, and Gloucester nave. 1 


In Early Christian art the apostles appear as sheep, six on 
either side of the Good Shepherd or of the Lamb of God. But 
in mediaeval art they are human figures distinguished by their 
emblems, of which the following are the most common : 

In the illustration, taken from an ancient print (261), the 
apostles are depicted as follows : S. Peter holds keys ; S.Andrew, 
the cross saltire on which he was crucified ; S. James the 
Greater,, a pilgrim's staff, wallet, and scallop shell ; 5. John, the 
poisoned chalice ; S, Thomas, the spear by which he was slain ; 
S.James the Less, a fuller's club, the instrument of his martyrdom ; 
S. Philip, the cross on which he was crucified (sometimes he 
has a basket of loaves, as on p. 61) ; i\ Bartholomew, the large 
knife with which he was flayed ; 5. Matthew, an axe, instrument 
of his martyrdom; S.Jude, a tall cross-staff (often he holds a 
boat, as on p. 82) ; 5. Simon, the saw with which he was re- 
puted to have been sawn asunder longitudinally ; 6". Matthias, 
the battle-axe by which he suffered death. 


Of the various representations of the four evangelists, by far 
the most common in mediaeval sculpture is that of the four 
beasts of the Apocalypse, which may be memorised as ALOE : 
A being the angel or man, S. Matthew ; L the lion, S. Mark ; 
O the ox or calf, S. Luke ; E the eagle, S. John. They are 
exceedingly common in East Anglian fonts of the fifteenth 
century, eg., at Saxmundham, Suffolk. At first they were not 
applied with exact uniformity, S. Matthew or S. Mark each 
being represented at times as man or lion. This symbolism is 
drawn from Revelation iv. 6: " And in the midst of the throne 
and round about the throne were four beasts, . . . And the first 
beast was like a Hon, and the second beast like a calf, and the third 

1 In the York vault angelic hands are placing the crown on the head of 
Our Lady, while another hand swings a censer behind Our Lord, who holds 
the orb of sovereignty in His left hand. 



beast had a face as a man, and the fourth beast was like a flying 
eagle? The Apocalyptic imagery is plainly drawn from the 
first chapter of the prophet Ezekiel, who, being among the 
captives by the banks of a tributary of the Euphrates, saw visions 
of God ; when out of a whirlwind and a fiery cloud there came 
"the likeness of four living creatures. . . . And every one had 

J. H. P. 

Ancient Altar Cloth. 
Steeple Aston, Oxon. 

four faces and every one had four wings. . . . As for the like- 
ness of their faces > tfiey four had the face of a man and the face of 
a lion on the right side; and they four had the face of an ox on the 
left side; they four also had the face of an eagle? EzekieFs 
imagery again is drawn from the winged bulls and the other 
strange composite creatures which he saw around him, and 
which we may v still see in the Assyrian rooms at the British 


The evangelistic symbols are set forth in an ancient hymn : 

" Circa thronum Majestatis 
Cum Spiritibus Beads 
Quattuor diversitatis 
Astant animalia. 

"Formam primam Aquilinam, 
Et secundam Leoninam, 
Sed Humanam et Bovinam 
Duo gerunt alia. 

4 * Hi sunt Marcus et Matthaeus 
Lucas, et quern Zebedasus 
Pater tibi misit Deus, 
T)um laxaret retia," 

In the concluding verse the meaning of the symbols is declared 
as follows : 

" Natus Homo declaratur, 

Vitula sacrificatur, 

Leo mortem depredatur, 

Sed ascendit Aquila." 


In the Eastern Church these are SS. Athanasius, Basil, 
Gregory Nazianzen, and Chrysostom ; in the Western, S Augus- 
tine, who is usually represented holding a heart ; S. Ambrose, 
with a scourge or a beehive ; S. Gregory, with a cross and dove ; 
S. Jerome, with a lion and inkhorn. The Doctors of the Church 
are often provided with distinctive dress ; S. Gregory with that 
of a Pope, S. Jerome with that of a Cardinal, S. Ambrose 
with that of a Bishop, while S. Augustine has Doctor's 
robes. In a window at All Souls, Oxford, S. Gregory 
has the ox of S. Luke, S. Jerome the lion of S. Mark, S. 
Ambrose the angel of S. Matthew, S. Augustine the eagle of 
S. John, Statues of the Doctors occur or used to occur as 
pinnacles on the towers of several East Anglian churches ; on the 
tower of Wiggenhall S. Peter, Norfolk, the evangelistic symbols 
formed the pinnacles. In the Eastern Church the term saint is 
applied to holy men of the Old Testament also ; and we hear 
of S, Abel, S. Noah, S. Moses, S. Samuel, and many others. 



w. P. w. ; 

SS. Ambrose, Jerome, Augustine. 
Pulpit at Trull, Somerset. 




w. s. w. 

S. Jerome. 



E. K. P. 

S. Ambrose. S. Augustine. 

Ashton Rood-screen, Devon. 


Of the three Wise Men, Gaspar is usually aged, and has a 
long grey beard ; Melchior is in the prime of life, and has a short 
beard; Balthazar is young and beardless; sometimes he is a 
negro, with thick lips and curly hair (95).; In the scene of the 
Adoration they are generally crowned kings ; for it is written : 
" The kings of Tarshish and of the isles shall bring presents ; the 
Kings of Sheba and Saba shall offer gifts ; yea^ all kings shall fall 
down before Him'' In similar fashion, to show the fulfilment of 
ancient prophecy, an ox and an ass appear in the scene of the 
Nativity. 1 They are not mentioned in the New Testament 

1 The illustration is from the thirteenth-century wall arcading in Wor- 
cester cathedral : the figures comprise the Blessed Virgin, S. Joseph, and 
the Child, an ox and an ass (268). 



The Nativity. 
Worcester Cathedral. 

account; but Isaiah had written "The ox knoweth his owner 
and the ass his master's crib!' And so, in the words of .an 
old carol 

"ftr and ass before Him bow, 
And He is in the manger now; 
Christ is born to-day? 


The Sibyls are frequently represented in mediaeval art, 
especially in. company with the Prophets. They are ten, or 
more often twelve, in number, and were supposed to have 
prophesied the coming of Christ A detailed account of them, 
with illustrations, is given in the first appendix to Husenbeth's 
Emblems The Sibyls form part of the famous pavement of the 
cathedral of Siena, where they are incased in white marble. 
Complete sets of twelve remain on the painted rood-screens of 
Bradninch and Ugborough, and nine on that of Heavitree, 




A ship riding safely amidst the storms of life was a favourite 
early symbol of the Church ; sometimes S. Peter is at the helm, 
so that the reference may be to Our Lord walking on the sea. 
Sometimes instead 'of a ship a floating chest, or area, appears, in 
which kneels a saint, the prototype being the ark of Noah. 1 

Norman examples of the ark building and the ark afloat 
occur on the west front of Lincoln minster. Also in Salisbury 
chapter house, Noah is seen in the ark. 2 Sometimes the Church 

j. H. P. 

The Christian Church. The Synagogue. 

From painted glass in Bourses Cathedral. 

1 "With its ship-like character," said Durtal, "Chartres strikes me as 
amazingly like a motionless vessel with spires for masts and the clouds for 
sails, spread or furled by the wind as the weather changes. It remains the 
eternal symbol of Peter's boat which Jesus guided through the storm." 

' " And likewise of Noah's ark the ark outside which there is no safety," 
added the Abbe. J. K. Huysmans, LaCatktdrale. 

For a more sober account of the symbolism of Chartres cathedral, see 
paper by Mr G. H. Birch on " Christian Iconography in S. Pants Eccledo- 
logical Society^ i. 9. 

2 It may be mentioned here that Jews were generally represented with 
the conical caps they were compelled to wear in the Ghetto, 



Rochester : doorway of Chapter House. 


appears as a crowned female figure, holding a cross in one hand 
and in the other a chalice or church. Opposite may be another 
female figure, symbolising the Synagogue, sometimes blind- 
folded ; with broken spear or banner, a crown falling from her 
head, and the broken tables of -the Law from her hands ; eg., in 
the doorway of Rochester chapter house, where the figure at a 
recent restoration was supplied with a moustache. 

This is how Mr W. J. Blew sings of "The Gallant Ship of 
Christendom " : * 

" Up to the wind, nor wild nor free 

She steers ; her course right on is set ; 
Though crags lie low upon her lee, 
The headland shall be weathered yet." 

"To windward all; look up and hail 

The blowing of that goodly breeze ; 
Fresh life it gives to hearts that fail, 
And strength unto the feeble knees." 

" So steady so like winged sea-fowl 

She breasts the wind ; on each broad sail, 
Through stay and shroud, the white squalls howl, 
And rattles the sharp spray like hail." 

" Yet stands she, as on Lebanon 

The trees that be her fellows stand 
Time-worn and stained as years roll on, 
Yet staunch as from the builder's hand." 

" Though weed and wave have dimmed the gold 

Of Judah's lion on her prow, 
Sound is the treasure in her hold, 

Her sheathing shines like gold below." 

"The Red Cross from her topmast flies, 

And white as snow her silver field ; 
Her Ancient blue as summer skies 

Bears the Lamb crowned and pennonceled ; 
While charged with richest blazonries 
Hangs aft S. Michael's dragon-shield." 

1 In appendix to his translation of Medea (Rivington, 1887). The verses 
quoted are but a small part of a noble poem, which should be known to all 



" Bear on, brave bark, with forward shoot 
Cleave the curled wave, the billowy swell ; 

The high mast trembles to her root, 
She feels it I that her keel can .tell, 

As it lifts to the leap of her merry forefoot 
At the cry of the watch, * All's well.' " 

" Her taut spars like a Cretan bow 

Arch with the wind ; taut stands each stay ; 
He slumbers not nor sleeps who now 
Holds the brave, galley on her way." 


is only represented in the 
Catacombs as the Serpent 
tempting Eve ; but from the 
tenth century appears as the 
conventional hideous monster, 
or as a dragon in the scene 
from the Apocalypse, in which 
he is described as " that great 
dragon" and is overcome by 
. S. Michael. On the west 
front of Lincoln minster and 
elsewhere he may be seen on 
his back with fetters round 
his arms and legs, while Christ 
tramples on him, and holds 
him down by thrusting into 
his mouth the butt end of 
the Cross. This scene is 
from the apocryphal Gospel 
of Nicodemus, and was 
termed the Harrowing, t.e., 
the Harrying or Spoiling of 

T. N. B, 

Hell Mouth. 
Horning Church, Norfolk. 


Hell Mouth. 
Bench end, Banning, Kent, 




The Early Christian Church delighted in depicting Paradise ; 
the Mediaeval Church in graphic realisation of the torments of Hell 

In the Catacombs Hell is not 
represented ; but they are full 
of the joys of Paradise, green 
pastures by still waters, 
where the birds flutter in the 
branches of olive and palm 
and rose, or peck at the grape 
or fig, or drink from limpid 
fountains, and the saints are 
gathered together at the table 
of their Lord, waited on by 
Irene and Agape, "Peace" 
and " Love." In . mediaeval 
art Hell appears as a seeth- 
ing caldron or as the open 
mouth of a monster from 
which issue flames. 1 

1 The scene on the bench end 
at Banning, Kent, is the normal 
one of the Spoiling of Hell, as 
given in the Gospel of Nicodemus. 
Our Lord in cruciferous nimbus 
and holding a staff tipped with a 
cross (not seen in the photograph) 
is taking Adam by the right hand, 
Eve being behind. The treatment 
of the subject at Banning is deter- 
mined by the peculiar shape of the 
base and the curve behind, the 
figure of Eve being magnified to 
fill up the space behind Our Lord. 
She "is not mentioned in the nar- 
rative in the Gospel of Nicodemus, 
which runs as follows : xvii. 13, 
"Then the King- of Glory. tramp- 

"* C ' B ' Hell Mouth. lin u P n death and took an 

earthly father, Adam, to his glory." 

North Cray, Kent. x i x . x . " Then Jesus stretched 

forth His right hand and said, 

*Come to me, all ye my saints. 3 " 3, "Then presently all the saints were 
joined together under the hand of the most high God ; and the Lord Jesus 
laid hold on Adam's hand and said to him" ... 12, "And taking hold 


It is to be noted that the representation of Hell Mouth as 
the jaws of a monster is foreign to Byzantine art ; in Western 
art the earliest examples appear to occur in English MSS, of 
the tenth and eleventh centuries. 


In the Catacombs the soul is represented as an Orante, a 
slender girl, tall and dignified, and heavily draped, with hands 
uplifted to heaven. A medal in the Vatican, depicting the 
martyrdom of S. Lawrence on the gridiron, shows an Orante by 
his side rising to heaven. In medieval art the soul is generally 
depicted as a tiny babe, usually naked, issuing from the mouth 

F. H. C. 

Boss in the Vault. S. Mary's, Beverley. 

of a dying person, or standing in the lap of Our Lord, as in 
Lady Percy's tomb in Beverley minister,- If there are several 
babes, the bodies may be omitted. In an interesting example 
illustrated in Mrs Barber's Drawings of Ancient Embroidery^ 
the souls are in the lap of Abraham^ commemorating the fact 
that Lazarus was taken up into Abraham's bosom. 

of Adam by his right hand, He ascended from Hell, and all the saints of 
God followed Him." c. xx., "Then the Lord, holding Adam by the hand, 
delivered him to Michael the archangel" The following plates in vol. 
Ixvi. of the Archaeological Journal should be consulted, vii. 321 ; viii. 323; 
ix. 325; x. 327 ; xiii. 333 (G, C, D.). The same scene is represented in 
stone in a window at Dorchester, Oxon., illustrated in the writer's Intro* 
duction to English Ckurch Architecture, vol. 1.^.261. 




W. E. 



Though the cross was held in the greatest reverence by the 
Early Christians, the symbol of the cross is hardly ever found in 
the Catacombs before 312 A.D., perhaps because it was dangerous 
to exhibit a symbol known to be associated with a proscribed 
religion. It appears in a mosaic at Ravenna about 440, and is 
thenceforth common. The Tau cross was the symbol of eternity 
with the Egyptians, and was borne by Thoth. It may have been 
introduced as a Christian symbol by the Coptic Christians. The 
Tau cross is an emblem of S. Anthony of Egypt, and is worn 
by the Order of the Knights of S. Anthony, instituted in 1352. 

In Norman sculpture the Maltese cross is usually employed ; 
it has arms of equal length which expand at the end ; as a rule 
it is enclosed in a circle, e.g., Wold Newton, Yorkshire. Other 
types of cross are figured on p. 276. 1 


The crucifix does not occur till the fifth century ; and till the 
eleventh century the body of the Crucified is always shown 
clothed, sometimes in the robes of the High Priest. The object 
of the early representations was rather to depict the triumph of 
the Son of God over death than the sufferings of the Son 
of Man. 


is associated not only with Our Lord, but with S. Francis of 
Assisi, S. Catherine of Siena, and others. 


These may include the ladder, the thirty pieces of silver, the 
dice-board and the dice, the seamless robe, the cock, the spear, 

1 It is a common error to suppose the cross of an archbishop to be the 
equivalent of the crook or crosier of a bishop, and to have been carried by 
him. As a matter of fact he carried a crosier like other bishops. The cross 
he did not carry ; it was borne before him in processions. But in brasses 
and memorials an archbishop is sometimes represented as holding in his 
hand his cross as an emblem. In the upper line of p. 276 are shown 
a Latin cross, a Maltese cross, and the cross of an archbishop ; in the 
second line a papal cross, a cross fleuri, and a Tau cross ; in the third 
line a fylfot, a cross saltire, and a pentalpha or pentangle. 



the sword, the pillar and scourges, the hammer and nails, the 
crown of thorns, the cross, the goblet of vinegar, the fist that 
buffeted Him, the ewer used by Pilate, the cup of wine and 

From Poppies in the Chancel of Cumnor Church, Berks. 

Crown of Thorns and Nails, 
in stained glass. 

S. Peter's Sword, 
from a MS. in the Bodleian Library. 

J. H. P. 

Scourges, from Abbot Ramrigg's Chantry, S. Albans Abbey. 

myrrh, the lantern, the lance, the pincers, a rope or chain for the 
deposition of the body, winding sheet and spices in a vase. A 
very elaborate set is painted on the wooden vault of Winchester 
choir; they are common on East Anglian fonts; fine examples 
occur at the back of a bench at Fressingfield, Suffolk (283) ; 



Passion Emblems. 
Bench end at Sutcombe, N. Devon. 

others at Swaffham, Norfolk, Horsham, Sussex, Mildenhall, 
Suffolk, Llanrwst, Wales (280), and elsewhere, 1 

1 At Fressingfield, Suffolk, is the best carving on bench ends in 
England. On the back bench, locally known as the "Passion bench," 
the subjects are as follows: (i) Cock crowing; (2) the buffet and jug of 
vinegar ; (3) I. H. C. ; (4) whipping pillar, cords and scourges ; (5) the 
cross, crown of thorns, and nails ; (6) the spear and sponge; (7) hammer, 
pincers, and ladder ; (S) seamless coat and dice-board (284). On the screen 
at Llanrwst" the subjects are : (i) The cross and crown of thorns ; (2) Agnus 
Dei ; (3) hammer, pincers, nails, lantern, ladder, cock, pillar and cords, 
spear ; (4) I. H. C. (280). At Sutcombe, Devon, the five wounds are shown 
(279) ; also the hand of Judas grasping a purse (290). Cf. p. 102. 






In the religious art both of Buddhism and of Greece a golden 
halo round the heads of gods and saints is quite familiar. At 
first it was an emblem of power rather than of sanctity ; for 
among those who possess it are the emperors Trajan, Justinian 
and Charlemagne, King Herod and Satan himself. It may also 
occur on allegorical personages such as Charity and Poverty. 
The nimbus does not occur on Christian monuments till the 
sixth century. All early nimbi were circular ; the triangular 
form is not found before the eleventh century, and the square 
nimbus, as characteristic of a living person, is not employed 
before the eleventh century. The nimbus in the form of an 

j. H. P. 

The Assumption of the Virgin. 
From sculpture in Sandford Church, Oxfordshire. 


equilateral triangle does not occur before the fifteenth century, 
and is usually reserved for the First Person of the Trinity, or for 
the dove symbolising the Holy Spirit. The cruciferous nimbus, 
a cross inscribed in a circle, is almost invariably restricted to 
Our Lord 1 (255). 


This is not so common as the nimbus ; it came into existence 
later, and disappeared earlier. The nimbus surrounds the head, 
the aureole the whole person. The aureole is emblematic of 
the encircling radiancy of the Divine Glory, and is based on the 
account of the Transfiguration and various other passages. 2 

The aureole is especially devoted to the Deity, though it is 
associated with the Blessed Virgin. It is possible that the 
vesica pisris (p. 256) is a variant of the aureole. The aureole is 
seen in a representation of the Assumption of the Virgin at 
Sandford, Oxon, (281), and at Tideswell (3). 


In Pagan and in Early Christian art, the attitude of prayer 
was with uplifted hands. In mediaeval art also this may occur ; 
and is perhaps the explanation of the strange figure on a capital 
of the doorway of S. Woolos, Newport, Wales. 3 

Even in late days the primitive attitude of prayer survived ; 
for /Elfric, writing at the end of the tenth century, says of King 
Oswald, M., that 

" Wherever he was, he worshipped God 
With the palms of his hands uplifted heavenward.' 7 


In Christian symbolism by far the most significant number 
is seven. It is written of Job, "In seven troubles there shall 
no evil touch thec " ; and in Proverbs, " Wisdom hath hewn out 
her seven pillars" 

1 On the Nimbus, see Geldart's Manual of Church Decoration and 
Symbolism and British Archaeological Association^ x, 332. 

- "The sight of the glory of the Lord was like devouring fire" on Mount 
Sinai (Exodus xxiv. 17). So also at the dedication of Solomon's temple, 
u the glory of the Lord had filled the house of the Lord" (i Kings viii. 11). 
And in the Apocalypse John saw one "like unto the Son of Man ; and His 
countenance was as the sun shineth in his strength" (Revelations i. 16). 

3 Illustrated in Gothic Architecture in England, 421.1. 


28 3 

C. F. N. 

Passion Bench, Fressingfield. 

There were seven days of creation. On the seventh day of the 
seventh month a holy observance was ordained to the children 
of Israel, who fasted seven days and lived seven days in tents. 
The seventh day was to be observed as a Sabbath, and at 
the end of seven times seven years came the great year 
. of Jubilee. Pharaoh in his dream saw seven oxen and seven 
ears of corn. The Israelites compassed the walls of Jericho 
seven times. Samson was bound with seven bands. . Naaman 
was told to bathe seven times in the Jordan. Jacob bowed 
himself seven times before his brother. Balaam built seven 
altars and prepared for sacrifice seven oxen and seven rams. 
In the Apostolic Church seven men were appointed deacons. 
The week has seven days, and the seventh day is the Sabbath. 
The Catholic Church has seven sacraments: 

firmation, Penance, Eucharist, Orders, Matrimony, Extreme 
Unction ; these are represented on many fonts. The seven- 
branched candlestick of the Jewish temple may still be seen at 
Rome on the Arch of Titus. In a Christian church a seven- 
branched candlestick or a group of seven lamps is illustrative of 
the passage, " There were seven lamps of fire burning before the 
throne^ which are the seven spirits of God" (Revelations iv. 5). 


The prophet Isaiah (xi. 2) enumerates the gifts ^ of the Spirit as 
" the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and 
might, the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the Lord:' To 
these the Vulgate adds a seventh, Piety. Psalms vi., xxxil, 
xxxviii., 1L, ciL, cxxx., cxliii. are penitential psalms, seven in 
number. There are seven deadly sins : Avarice, Elide, Quarrel- 
s^cacmess, Eavy, Drunkenness, Luxury, Anger, JLust There 
are seven cardinal virtues: Generosity, Humility, Piety, Pity, 
Modesty, Temperance, Patience, Chastity. The seven joys of 

o. o. . 


the Blessed Virgin were the Anminciajij&n, the Vjsitafcion, the 
Nativity, the A4o^^oa-^-4h^JVIagi, the Presentation in the 
Tsnaple, the finding*aLl^ the Temple, 

tja#*Jlssumpion. The seven dolours are the Prophecy of 
Simeon, the Flight into Egypt, losing Christ in the Temple, 
the Betrayal of Christ, the Crucifixion, the Deposition from the 
Cross, and the Ascension. At the consecration of a Catholic 
church the altar is sprinkled seven times in remembrance of the 
seven outpourings of the precious blood of Christ ; the first 
whereof was at cijncurncision ;*the second in prayer in the garden ; 
the third at the scourging j.the fourth from the crown of thorns; 



the fifth from the piecGe4- hands ; the sixth when His feet were 
nailed to the cross ;7the seventh when His side was pierced with 
the spear. Moreover, there are seven champions of Christendom : 
S^^G^Oxge-ef-Eftgland, S. Andrew of Scotland, S. David of Wales, 
S. Patrick of Ireland, S. Denis of France, S. James of Spain, 
S. Anthony of Italy. No wonder that in the eyes] of the 

c. o. 

Fressingfield, Suffolk. 

mediaeval churchman a special sanctity attached to the number 
seven. But not to the Christian only was seven the mystic 
number of perfection. There were seven wise men in Greece. 
Shakespeare distinguishes seven ages of man. At Mecca the 
pious Moslem passes round the sacred stone seven times. Jacob 
served an apprenticeship seven years for the love of Rachel ; and 
gave the precedent for the seven years of apprenticeship to a 
trade which till recently were customary. The lease of a house 


is wont to be for seven, fourteen, or twenty-one years ; seven 
years of penal servitude used to be a customary sentence for 
crime. We come of age when our years are three, times seven ; 
when our years are three score and ten it is time to go. 

On the other hand the number nine, in spite of its marvellous 
mathematical properties, was of little account to the Christian. 
Outside Christianity we hear of the nine tailors, the nine lives of 
a cat, the nine points of the law, the-cat-o'-nine-tails, and the 
cheer of three times three. 

o. K. 


With the number forty there were many associations. The 
Deluge lasted forty days, and Noah was shut up forty days in 
the ark. The Israelites wandered forty years in the wilderness, 
and forty years were they in bondage to the Philistines. Moses 
was forty days on the Mount Elijah lay in concealment forty 
days. Jonah preached " yet forty days, and Nineveh shall be 
overthrown." Our Lord fasted forty days in the wilderness. 
Forty days of rain are due after a wet S. Swithin's. Sanctuary 
privilege was good for forty days, and quarantine used to last 
the same period. 

C. O. R. 





The symbolism of colours is far too intricate to be worked out 
here. An extraordinarily minute and fanciful account of the 
symbolism of colours, jewels, and odours, and indeed of ecclesi- 
astical symbolism in general, especially as found in the cathedral 
of Chartres, will be found in La Cath/drale, by J. K. Huysmans, 
translated by Clara Bell (Kegan Paul, 1898). 



Two may be of mystic import. Naturally the Equilateral 
Triangle is sacral, as expressive of the doctrine of the Trinity. 
The Pentalpha or Fuga D&monwn had a great repute among 
exorcists; it is not uncommon as a centre-piece in window 
tracery. It is formed by connecting two equilateral triangles; 
which being done, the figure is found to contain the letter A 
repeated five times. It occurs on a slab at S. Laurens, Jersey, 
and the tomb of Coeur de Lion at Fontrevault (276). 




This mysterious emblem has a literature of its own ; it is 
fully discussed in vol. xlviii. of the Arch&ologia. It occurs in 
the mediaeval churches and the Catacombs ; it was found also 
at Troy by Dr Schliemann, and is common in Indian and 
Chinese art (276). 



These are favourite subjects, especially on Norman door- 
ways, tiles, misericords, and stained glass. The Four Seasons 
occur on a Norman font at Thorpe Salvin, Yorkshire. Perhaps 
the most complete set of the months is that on the fourteenth- 
century capitals in the choir of Carlisle cathedral. Many 
examples, in fine preservation, may be seen on the west front of 
Amiens and on the great west doorway of S. Mark's, Venice. 

37 . '. ' : " ' ' .''. . : '.. '. ' ' ' 




The signs of the Zodiac are particularly common over 
Norman doorways, e.g., Barfreston, near Dover. They are well 

seen on a Norman 
lead font at Brook- 
land, Kent. 1 The 
sign of the Zodiac, 
Sagittarius, is often 
represented by a 
Centaur shooting 
with a bow and 
arrow ; very fre- 
quently in company 
with Leo or other 
animals, e.g., West 
Rounton font and 
capitals at Adel, 
Iffley, and Lulling- 
ton, Somerset. The 
Months and the 
Zodiac have been 
treated exhaustively 
by Rev. S. Pegge in 
Arch&ologia, x. 177 ; 
Mr James Fowler, 
ibid.) xliv. 137 ; and 
Mr R. Brown, ibid., 
xlvii. 337. See also 
Arch. Cantiana, iv. 
89, and Journal of 
British Archceological 
Institute, vi. 159. 


It was not till the 
later days of Gothic 
art that repulsive 
representations of 
Time and Death, 
skeletons and skulls, 

The hand holding the bag of silver. 
Bench end at Sutcombe, Devon. 

1 Illustrated in Arch. 
Cantiana, iv. 87. 


came into vogue. In the Greek Church Time had been repre- 
sented as a beardless youth ; and in the Campo Santo of Pisa 
Death is a stately angel. On the Elizabethan and Jacobean 
monuments the emblems of mortality are exceedingly common. 
In Broxbourne church, Hertfordshire, on a monument of 1609, 
Sir Henry Cock, his two wives, his daughters, and four grand- 
daughters, all hold skulls in their hands. To the Puritan, a little 
later, death was a yet more repulsive idea. With the Renais- 
sance came in also Pagan symbols : the broken column, and the 
cinerary urn in which there were no ashes. 

w. D. 

Poppy Head. 
Barningham Parva, Norfolk. 



Early Christian Emblems Eucharistic Vestments Processional Vest- 
mentsGeneric Emblems Specific Emblems. 

IN this chapter a list is given of the chief emblems of the mediaeval 
saints. The emblems of the Early Christian saints are omitted, simply 
because they were for the most part unknown to mediaeval people. 
Vast numbers are still to be seen in the Roman Catacombs, and they 
have been described and illustrated with scrupulous care. 1 But in the 
Middle Ages the Roman Catacombs, with a few insignificant exceptions, 
were unknown, till on May 3ist, 1578, workmen engaged in excavation 
fell through the roof of one of the underground chambers, and attention 
was called to the existence of these long-forgotten incunabula of the 
Christian Church. From" that time much study was devoted to their 
contents, which, mainly through the work of Marchi and the brothers 
I)e Rossi, are now familiar. But since the abandonment of the Cata- 
combs commenced as early as the invasion of the Goths in A.D. 537, 
and since the rediscovery of them did not take place till A.D. 1578, the 
mediaeval symboliser had and could have no direct knowledge of their 
contents. In this chapter, therefore, little reference is made to 
Symbolism in Early Christian Art ; it forms a subject in itself. 

The emblems of the saints may be divided into two classes, the 
Generic and the Specific. The former are emblems of a class; the 
latter of an individual martyr or of individual martyrs, l^usysjmliy^a 
rrflwn r>r ja^jalm^ J^g^^J^J" e g^ that the saint who hastEem was a 
njgEtyT. But a basket of apples is""a specific emblem ot $. Dorothy, and 
a scythe of SS. Sidwell and Walstan. In many cases the emblem is 
sometimes used generically, and sometimes specifically. The latter is 
the case when a crown is worn by persons who are of royal blood ; <?.*., 
Edward the Confessor, S. Etheldreda of Ely, S. Catherine of Alexandria, 
not because they have won the crown of martyrdom. 

1 See Northcote and Brownlow^s Roma Sotteranea and the bibliography affixed to 
the article on "Catacombs" in Smith and Cheetham's Dictionary of Christian 


It is not to be supposed that the saints were invariably depicted 
with their emblems. Sometimes the emblem would be unknown to the 
artist; especially would this be the case where such inconspicuous 
saints as Januarius, Prosdecimus, Gildard, and Desiderius are represented, 
as in the north aisle windows of Wiggenhall S. Mary Magdalen, Norfolk ; 
or where, as in this church, there was attached a label or scroll to the 
representation of each saint ; e.g., in these windows SS. Aldhelm, Sixtus, 
Sampson, German, Cuthbert, Botolph, Januarius, Giles, Swithun, and 
others all wear mitres and the eucharistic vestments of bishop or abbot, 
and hold a crosier in one or both hands, or a crosier and a book, or the 
left hand holds a crosier and the right is raised as in the act of benedic- 
tion. Evidently these are conventional representations intended merely 
to signify that the saint was an abbot or bishop, and not specific 
emblems. Moreover the emblems vary : e.g., S. Matthew. 

As the eucharistic vestments are so commonly represented, especially 
in stained glass, in which as a rule they are shown with great care and 
accuracy, it may be worth while to give a short description of them. 
Then, as now, Catholic priests were buried in their eucharistic vestments, 
well-worn vestments being reserved for that purpose. Naturally, there- 
fore, most brasses of priests show them thus habited. As a large 
proportion of them are brasses of parish priests, they are usually of 
moderate size. TJie Mass vestaj .pujt Mt on^ija. l j3ie 

pray Cf-being-. jsai d. jdlile^each, vestn^.^_nt_ij5_l3ging._put-i3n : r 
Atoiee ; 2, the_lb ; 3, thejjirdle ; 4, the Stole ; 5, thej^aniple ; 6, the 

1. THE AMICE. The amice was always of linen, and was a 
mediaeval invention. Originally it must have been a hood ; for still 
the priest first places it upon his head, with the prayer, "Impone, 
Domine, capiti meo gakam salutis (the 'helmet of salvation') ad 
expugnandum diabolicos incursus " -, moreover, in effigies at Towyn and 
Beverley minster the amice is drawn over the head as a hood. In 
shape it was rectangular, about 36 inches by 25 inches, and was fastened 
by strings encircling the body. On the upper edge of it was sewn a 
strip of embroidery called an apparel^ which, when the vesting was 
complete, formed a stiff standing collar. A glimpse is sometimes 
obtained of the linen portion of the amice in front of the neck between 
the two ends of the apparel. See SS. Martin (69), Dunstan (68), 
Lambert (125). Q^^&X*---- 

2. THE ALB.-^^-In ragan Rome under the early empire a common 
form of tunic was the flowing robe with sleeves called the dalmatica. 
In time this went out of fashion among laymen, but was retained in the 
Church by the conservatism of the ecclesiastics. Sylvester, Bishop of 
Rome, 253-257, ordained "ut diaconi dalmatica uterentur in ecclesia." 
A loose flowing robe, however, must have been very inconvenient 
during baptism by immersion, and by the ninth century it is found in 
illuminations as a tight-fitting robe convenient for baptismal and 
other offices as well The material was usually but not always linen, 
nor was the colour invariably white. Sometimes the alb was plain, but 


usually there were sewn or otherwise fastened to it rectangular strips of 
embroidery or apparel^ e.g., S. Dunstan (68). In brasses apparels are 
shown between the feet and upon the wrists. In the early albs the 
apparel invariably encircles the whole wrist ; later it shrinks to a small 
square patch sewn on the part of the sleeve which is toward the back 
of the hand. It should be noted that the term " apparel " is applied 
only to a strip of embroidery on the alb or amice ; when used elsewhere 
it is called an orphrey. 

3. THE GIRDLE. As the alb was always of great length, it was 
necessary to pull up the lower part of it through the girdle and let it 
hang over above it. The girdle is therefore not visible ; but its presence 
implied by the disposition of the alb and stole when the latter can be 
seen, as in a brass at Upwell, Norfolk. 

4. THE STOLE. The stole is a descendant of the Q&&%%I, which 
seems to have been a narrow strip of cloth, originally, perhaps, in the 
early empire merely a napkin used to wipe the face, " ora," but granted 
to the Roman people by the Emperor Aurelian as a favour or badge of 
distinction. In the seventh century this is found in the form of the 
present stole worn by deacons, priests, and bishops alike, and worn 
precisely in the same fashion as at present. The stole is a narrow strip 
of embroidery or orphrey work nine or ten feet long, and two or three 
inches wide. In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries it is widened 
out at each end ; afterwards it was uniform in width. By a priest the 
stole is crossed over the breast and secured in that position by the 
girdle of the alb. Deacons secured it over the left shoulder and under 
the right arm; thereby approximating the disposition of the stole to 
that of the ancient Roman orarium. Bishops generally do not cross 
the stole. Usually only the fringed ends appear, except where, as in 
brasses at Upwell, Norfolk, and Sudborough, Northants, the priest is 
not wearing the chasuble. 1 See SS. Thomas (130), Dunstan (68). 

5. THE MANIPLE. The maniple, fanon, or sudarium, was also 
originally a napkin. Its use was enjoined on deacons as early as 253 
to 257 by Sylvester, Bishop of Rome. Its object is plainly stated by 
S. Ivo of Chartres and Amalarius of Metz ; it was to wipe off perspira- 
tion and moisture from the face and eyes. At first it was worn over the 
fingers of the left hand ; later, probably because it was constantly liable 
to slip off, it was placed over the left wrist, and buttoned or sewn to 
the sleeve. In form it resembled the stole, but was only about three 
feet long. JLfe^KaA r f r ing^iJ ^jnfi ffofjp^tfd with rrphrjgy wnrl^ See 
S. Thomas (130). 

_ ^ 6. THE CHASUBLE. -In Pagan Rome the outer dress of the Roman 
citizen was originally the toga; but for outdoor wear it was ultimately 
superseded by the penula, casula, and planeta. In the sixth century of 
our era the last was worn by nobles and senators. It was a sort of 
large poncho, passed over the head through a hole in the middle. As 
early as the time of Sylvester, the alb, orarium, and planeta were worn 

1 For Sudborough, see illustration in Haines' Brasses, Ixv. ; for Upwell, see 
illustration in BuuteH's Series of Monumental Brasses, 


by priests. Except when worn folded at certain seasons, its use was con- 
fined to the celebrant at Mass ; it is therefore the Eucharistic vestment 
par excellence ; in fact the word vestimentum applies strictly, not to a 
set of Mass vestments, but to the chasuble only. It was usually of the 
most costly materials and richly decorated. The earlier chasubles are 
circular in front, the later ones are usually, but by no means always, 
pointed. Mr Macalister estimates the cost, according to the present 
value of money, of a set of vestments purchased by Henry the Third as 
follows : A cope, $6i. 25. 6d. ; tunic and dalmatic, ^269. 25. 6d. ; two 
chasubles, ^265; an alb, ^"5.^73. 6d. ; a mitre, ,1,230. The 
inventories of Lincoln minster in 1536 enumerate 265 copes, 52 
chasubles, 2 dalmatics, 94 tunicles, and 131 albs (68, 69). 

EPISCOPAL VESTMENTS. The above are vestments of a priest, worn 
at the most solemn moments of his life and at death. Those of a 
bishop are more elaborate still. On the principle that the clergy of the 
higher orders do not cease to belong to the various orders through 
which they have passed, they are entitled to wear the insignia of the 
lower orders to those of the higher. A bishop's vestments, when 
celebrating on greater and more solemn occasions, comprise (i) those of 
the priest, viz., the amice, alb, girdle, stole, maniple, chasuble; (2) the 
falmfljjf- flfjthft dffiiCQ**-; (3) the tunicle of the sub-deacon ; (4) 
the episcopal insignia, viz., stockings, sandals, gloves, ring, mitre, 
pastoral staff or crosier. In addition to all these an archbishop adds, 
(i) the pall, (2) tVjg rrnsc; gtg.ffj which, though shown sometimes in his 
hand, as a matter of fact was not carried by himself, but by his chaplain. 
The order in which the vesting took place was i, amice ; 2, alb ; 
3, girdle ; 4, stole ; 5, maniple ; 6, tunicle ; 7, dalmatic ; 8, chasuble ; 
9, pall. 

1. THE DALMATIC. The dalmatic is the Roman tunica dalmatica^ 
of which, as has been said, the alb is a tight-fitting variant. When worn 
by the bishop, it was shortened so as to allow the tunicle to be seen. 
For the dalmatic see S. Stephen (55). 

2. THE TUNICLE. This was another variant of the Roman tunica 
dalmatica. Both tunicle and dalmatic were richly embroidered and 
fringed. For the tunicle and dalmatic see S. Dunstan (68). 

3. THE STOCKINGS. These were originally appropriated to the 
pope. They were richly ornamented. 

4. THE SANDALS. The open sandal of the Roman citizen was 
retained by the monastic orders. On a brass at Kilkenny Bishop De 
Ledrede is represented (c. 1350), though in episcopal dress, with the 
Franciscan sandal. The tradition of the sandal survived in the open- 
work patterns in the upper portion of the shoe, through which the bare 
flesh appeared, or, in later days, the colour of the episcopal stocking. 
About the fourteenth century open-work shoes were abandoned in 
favour of a closed shoe of modern character. 

5. THE GLOVES. Originally, no doubt, their object was to keep the 
hands warm in a damp and unheated church ; later they came to be of 
white netted silk with a jewel or plate of gold on the back. They had 


quite lost their utilitarian purpose c. 1130. See SS. Martin (69), 
William (138), Dunstan (68). 

6. THE RING. The episcopal ring proper was only one of a large 
number of rings which might be worn by a bishop, the others being 
probably purely ornamental and secular. It was worn on the third 
ringer of the right hand, and above the second joint of that finger, not 
being passed, as rings are now, down to the knuckle. It was usually 
kept in place by a plain guard ring. It was always a circlet, with a 
precious stone, never engraved, which was usually a sapphire, but 
sometimes an emerald or ruby. 

7. THE MITRE. The mitre is not represented before the beginning 
of the eleventh century, when it is a simple cap, low and hemispherical, 
without a cleft, e.g., S. William (138). Very soon, however, the cleft 
appears, producing the double-pointed mitre. Till the fourteenth century 
mitres were low. Afterwards, with the exception of those of the brasses 
of Bishops Pursglove and Bell, they become tall, and were richly 
ornamented with embroidery and jewels, e.g., SS. Martin (69), 
Dunstan (68). Henry VIII. removed from Fountains abbey a 
silver gilt mitre set with pearls and stones which weighed seventy 

8. THE PASTORAL STAFF. The pastoral staff is also termed crosier, 
a word which has nothing to do with " cross." From the top of the 
staff was suspended the infula, which was not a survival of Constantine's 
banner, but was placed there to keep the moisture of the hand from 
tarnishing the plated staff, The crook is turned to the right or left at 
random ; and is not significant, as is often stated, of external or 
domestic rule. 

9. THE CROSS STAFF. The pastoral staff is significant of the 

dignity of feishtfp or^febot, the r^^H-fr nf that- n flr^hhjgVp On 
some foreign brasses an archbishop is represented carrying both in 
accordance with the principle stated above. 

10. THE PALL, The pall is of uncertain origin : it was already in 
use c. 820. ^ In form it was a loop of white lambs 7 wool passing round 
the neck, with two tails, one in front and one behind. It was fastened 
to the chasuble by pins, e.g., S. Dunstan (68), but sometimes a plummet 
of lead was attached to its extremities instead, to keep it in place. On 
it were always crosses, four to eight in number, originally worked in 
purple but now in black. It appears in the shape of a Y or T. An 
archbishop was expected to go to Rome on election to receive the 
pallium in person, and not to wear it outside his province ; when he 
died, it was buried with him. The-^^lliuni is the only vestment which 
may not be lent by one cleric to another. 

Memorials of mitred abbots show them as a rule in the episcopal 
vestments described, e.g., the brass of Abbot Delamere at S. Albans. 

Quite distinct from the Eucharistic were the Ppocj^g^^L or CHOIR 
^2SJ S ' &b ve . the underclothing was worn (i) the Cassock, which 
ongmauy was lined with fur. Unlike modern cassocks, it was not worn 
with a sash, nor had it a row of buttons from neck to hem like " a boiler 


with a close row of rivets." (2) Above the cassock was worn the 
Surflice, which is practically an alb. Both the surplice and the alb 
were slipped over the head till enormous wigs came in fashion in the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, when they were made open in 
front, and secured at the neck with a button. (3) Then came the 
Almuce, a fur-lined hood, which was worn turned back. (4) Then came 
the great Cope, or cloak, fastened in front of the breast by a big morse 
or brooch. See S. Mardn (95). 


ARROW. This usually means that the individual saint was shot with 
arrows, e.g., SS. Sebastian, Edmund, Christina. But it is probable 
that the presence of an ajrrpw, an^axe, a halkert, a dagger, a clufc, 
aj3Dar, a J&nce, ajsasy, etc., often means merely that the martyr 
was tortured before"finally being put to death ; i.e., it, is an emblerrLQf 

ASPERGE. Used for sprinkling holy water; and as a symbol of holiness 

of life. 
BOOK. This may mean specifically that the saint was an Evangelist or 

was a Doctor of the Church ; or merely that Tie was learned, like S. 

Catherine, or a constant attendant at the services of the Church, 

like S. Sitha. 
CHALICE. This, with or without the Host and paten, may mean that 

the saint was a priest, the cup from 1215 being forbidden to the 

laity. But the chalice is a specific emblem in the case of SS. 

John Evangelist, Benedict, Richard of Chichester, and Barbara. 
CHURCH. A church may mean that the saint founded a church or a 

monastery ; or may be merely a symbol of high rank in the Church. 
CROSS. A cross at the top of a long wand often signifies a missionary 

or preacher; e.g., John Baptist and S. Alban (13). 

wfrr ng J^jgpW E. Royal rank on earth ; or a saint in heaven. 

E. The presence of the Holy Spirit, inspiring writers and preachers ; 

or purity of heart ; or a Christian. 
FOUNTAIN SPRINGING UP. This may mean nothing more than that 

good results followed the saint's preaching and example. But see 

S. Peter, p. 327. 
HEATUO.RRIED. This may mean merely that the saint suffered ^ death 

by decapitation* the usual form of capital punishment in the 

Roman Empire, e.g., S. Denis. 
T.TT.v_g CT h l nf tKi* massed-Virgin : also of virginity; also of a pure 


PALM. The palm of victory of a martyr. 
SCOURGE OR DISCIPLINE. Self-rnortification ; e.g., SS. Boniface and 

Guthlac. But specific in the case of S. Ambrose, p. 309. 
SKULL. Contemplation of mortality and preparation for death; e.g., 

S. Jerome. 
SWORD. Death by decapitation. 



Sometimes a symbol is merely a rebus ; i.e., a play on the name of 
the saint- e.g., SS. Cornelius, Agnes, Hoiofius, Sidwell, Hippolytus: 
the last name signifies "torn by horses." 


ALMS. S. Elizabeth of Hungary. 

ALTAR. Prayer at or before, S. Clement and S. Canute, K.M. 

Murdered before, SS. Iho mg<; ^ Cmtffrbury and Winifred. 
ANCHOR. SS. Clement, Felix, Nicholas. 
AN<;EL. S. Matthew, etc. 
ANVIL SS. Giles and Adrian ; his wife holding Adrian's hands on an 

anvil to be chopped off. 
APPLES. SS. Dorothy and Nicholas. 
ARMOURED. SS. George, Michael, Maurice, Panqras of Rome, Victor, 

Armil, Eustace. 
ARROW. SS. Sebastian, Edmund, Cosmas and Damian, Uisula, Giles, 


AsphRc.ic. SS. Benedict, Peter, Robert of Knaresborough, Martha, etc. 
Axic. Laid to the root of an oak, S. Boniface. 
BAG OR BAG-PURSE. SS. Matthew, Sitha; Judas Iscariot. " 
BALL OF FIRE. S, Benedict 
BALLS, Three or Six. S. Nicholas. 
BARN. S. Bridget of Kildare. 

BASKET. SS. Philip, Dorothy, Sitha, Elizabeth of Hungary. 
BATTLE-AXE. SS. Olave, Alphege, Thomas of Canterbury. 
BEARDED WOMAN. SS. Wilgefortis, V.M., Barbara, Galla. 
BEEHIVE. SS. Ambrose, Bernard, John Chrysostom. 
BEGGAR. SS. Elizabeth of Hungary, Martin, Alexis, Giles, Medard. 
BELL. SS. Anthony, Benedict. 
BELLOWS. S. Genevieve. 

BLIND RESTORED TO SIGHT. SS. Magnus, Birinus, Vedast, Wulstan. 
BIRDS. SS. Macentius, Paul the Hermit, Remigius, Blaise, Erasmus. 
BOAR, Wild. SS, Anthony, Blaise. 
BOAT. SS. Jude, Mary Magdalene, Julian Hospitaller. 

"--BODKIN OR BORER. S. Leger, S. Simon of Trent. 
BUTTLE AND SHEARS. SS. Cosmas and Damian. 
Bow. S. Sebastian. 
BOWELS. SS. Erasmus, Vincent. 
Box, Money. S, Matthew. 
Box OF OINTMENT. SS. Mary Magdalene, Joseph of Arimathea, 

Cosmas and Damian. 

SS. Brandan, Bridget of Kildare, Kentigern. 


BREAST. Serves as altar, S. Lucian. Pierced or cut off, SS. Agatha, 

'Sophia and her daughters. 
BRIARS. S. Benedict. 
BROOM. SS. Petronilla and Sitha. 
BULL, Brazen. SS. Eustace and Polycarp. 
CALVES.- S. Walstan. 
CANDLE. SS. Genevieve, Beatrix, Blaise. 
CANOE IN HAND. S. Vincent. 
CARDINAL. SS. Jerome, Mark. 
CARPENTER'S SQUARE. SS. Thomas, Jude, Matthew. 
CASKET. SS. Cosmas and Damian, Mary Magdalene. 
CAULDRON. SS. Lucy, Cecilia, Erasmus, Cyriacus, John Evangelist, 

Felicitas, Boniface, Cyprian. 
CAVE. SS. Benedict, Blaise, Leonard, Giles. 
CHAIN. SS. Leonard, Ninian, German, Ignatius, Radegund, Leonard, 

S. Peter ad mncula, S. Bridget of Sweden. 
CHALICE. SS. John Evangelist, Benedict, Barbara, Giles, Richard of 

Chichester, Thomas Aquinas, Bruno. 
CHASUBLE. Filled with stones, S. Alphege. R^d^ha^uble, S. JTbomas 

CHEST. Standing before open chest, S. Etheldreda. Filled with gold, 

S. Rumold. 

CHILDREN, Three. S. Nicholas. 
CHRISM. S. Remigius. 
CHURCH. SS. Botolph, Helena, Osmund, Peter, Withburga, Martin, 


CLOAK. Dividing, S. Martin. Spread out before him, S. Alban. 
CLUB, Fuller's. SS. James the Less and Simon. 
CLUB. -In his hand, SS. Jude, Boniface, and Fabian. Set with spikes, 

SS. Nicomede and Vitalis. Beaten with, SS. Lambert, Magnus, 

and Valentine. 
COALS. Hot coals in lap or hand or vestment, S. Brice. Brought 

by acolyte in his surplice, S. Lambert. 
COCK. Crowing, S. Peter. 
COFFIN. In a boat, S. Ouen. 
COLT. Near, S. Medard. 
COMBS.- Iron, S. Blaise. 
COOK. Wearing an apron, S. Evortius. 
CORONATION. Edward the Confessor. 
CORPSE. In a coffin before him, S. Silvester. 
Cow. Wild, S. Perpetua. Red, SS. Bridget and Morwenna. 
Cows AND OXEN. S. Cornelius. 
CRIPPLE. Clothed, \_Efelii^^ ^^* s. Martin. 
CROCODILE. Under feet, S. Theodore. 
CROSS, Triple. Any Pope. Cross in the air, S. Ouen. 


CROWN OF THORNS. SS. Francis of Assisi, Cajhene .of Siena, 

William of Norwich, and King Louis. 
CRUCIFIX. SS. Bruno, Dunstan, Thomas Aquinas, Columba, Francis, 


JC&IIE3& Two. S. Vincent. 
CUP. Poisoned, with dragon or serpent issuing from it, SS. John 

Evangelist and Benedict. With dagger, King Edward, M. 

Covered cup, S. Mary Magdalene. 
DAGGER. SS. Olave, Canute, King Edward, M., Agnes. It is often 

the gej^rit. symbol. of/Leatb by g-g 


DALMATIC. SS. Gervase and'jProtasius, Vincent, Leonard. 
DART. SS. Lambert, Cosmas and Damian. 
DEACON. SS. Lawrence, Vincent, Quintin, Leonard. 
DISH. Silver dish broken and given to the poor, S. Oswald. 
DISTAFF. S. Genevieve, etc. 

DOES. S. Giles. Two does looking up to S. Withburga. 
DOG. With loaf in his mouth or licking the wounds of S. Roch. 
DOVE. SS. Bridget of Sweden, Catherine of Alexandria, Fabian, Lo, 

Remigius, Evortius, Hilary, Gregory, etc. 
DRAGOX. SS. George, Michael, Margaret, Armil, Guthlac, Silvester, 

Martha, Julian, German, etc. 

EAGLE. SS. John Evangelist, Gregory, Medard, Augustine of Hippo. 
EARS. Three or five ears of corn, S. Walburge or S. Bridget of 


ESPOUSAL, to the Saviour. S. Catherine, M., and J^-f^^ri n^ nf Sipnff 
EWER. S. Vincent. 
EVES. Carrying, S. Lucy. Plucked out, S. Leger. Executioner's eyes 

fall out, S. Alban. 

FALCON. SS. Bavon, King Edward, M, 
FAWN. S. Blase. 

FEATHER. Instead of palm, S. Barbara. 
FERRYMAN. S. Julian Hospitaller. 
FETTERS. Holding, SS. Leonard, Quentin, Egwin. SS. Ninian (chain), 

FIRE. Before him, S. Patrick. Near him, S. Barnabas. Extinguished 

by prayer, S. Aidan. Passing through unhurt, S. Boniface. Above 

the head, SS. Lo, Martin, Bridget of Kildare. See FLAME. 
FiSH.SS. Raphael Archangel, Andrew, Simon, Jude, Boniface, John 

of Bridlington, Eanswith, Egwin, Peter, Zeno. 
FLAMES. -Walking on, S. Anthony. Stabbed in flames, S. Polycarp. 

In his hand, S. Vincent. Near or over her, S. Bridget of Kildare. 

See FIRE. 

FLOWERS. SS. Dorothy, Cecilia and Zita. 
FONT, near him. SS. Patrick, Remigius, Silvester. 
FOOTSTEPS, Imprinted on Stone. S. Medard. 
FORGING HORSE SHOES. S. Eligius or Eloy. 


FOUNTAIN, SS. Clement, Boniface, Julitta, Augustine of Canterbury, 

Ives, Riquier, Leonard, Humbert, Paul, etc. 
FRANCISCAN HABIT. SS. Anthony of Padua, Bonaventura, Francis. 
FRUIT. SS. Dorothy and Anne. 
FURNACE, Thrown into. S. Victor of Marseilles. 
GEESE. Three, S. Martin. Wild, S. Milburga. In wolfs mouth, S, 


GIANT. S. Christopher. 

GIRDLE. SS. Thomas, Margaret, Thomas Aquinas. 
GLOBE, at his feet. SS. Bruno, Francis of Assisi, Ignatius. 
GOAT, Devil in shape of. S. Anthony. 
GOOSE. In wolfs mouth, S. Vedast By side, S. Martin. 
GOSPEL of St Matthew in hand. S. Barnabas ; of S. John, Edward 

the Confessor. 

GRAIL, Holy. Joseph of Arimathea. 
GRAVE, Stepping into. S. John Evangelist. 
GRIDIRON. SS. Lawrence, Vincent, Faith, Cyprian. 
HAIR, Flowing. SS. Mary Magdalene, Agnes. 
HALBERT. SS. Matthias, Matthew, Jude. 
HAMMER. SS. Adrian, Eloy, William of Norwich. 
HANDS CHOPPED OFF. S. Martha, etc. 
HARP. SS. Cecilia, Dunstan. 
HATCHET. SS. Matthias, Matthew. 
HAWK. S. Julian Hospitaller, S. Edward, K.M., etc. 
HEAD. Carried in hand or in platter, or on the ground, SS. John 

Baptist, Clair, Denis, Alban, Firmin, Winifred, Sidwell, Osyth, 

Decuman, etc. 

HEAD of S. Oswald carried by S. Cuthbert. 

HEART. SS. Augustine of Hippo, Benedict, Clare, Francis, Quintin, 
f Siena. 

HEART WITH I.H.S. S. Ignatius. 

HERMIT, SS. Christopher, Jerome, etc. 

HILL, Preaching on. S. David. 

HIND. S. Giles, S. Withburga, etc. 


HOOK. SS. Vincent, Agatha, Leger, Hippolytus. 

HORN. SS. Cornelius, Oswald, Hubert. 

HORNS. Moses. 

HORSE LEG, shoeing of. S. Eloy. 

HORSES, torn by. S. Hippolytus. 


HUNTER. SS. Eustace, German, Hubert 

IDOL, Broken or Falling. SS. Philip, George, Wilfrid, 

INFANT. SS. Brice, Elizabeth. 

INKHORN. SS. Jerome, Matthew. 

INSTRUMENTS OF THE PASSION. SS. Bridget, Gregory, Bernard. 



JUG. S. Vincent. 

KEYS. S3. Peter, Hubert, Sitha or Zita, Egwin, Petronilla, Hippolytus, 

Riquier, Genevieve, Blessed Virgin Mary, Dominic, Martha, James 

the Great, etc. 

KNIFE. SS. Bartholomew, Peter Martyr (in his head or shoulder). 
LADDER. SS. Olave, Perpetua, Leonard, Alexis. 
LADLE. SS. Martha. 

LAMB. SS. Agnes, Genevieve, John Baptist, Catherine. 
LAMP. SS. Lucy, Francis. 
LANCE OR SPEAR. SS. Hippolytus, Matthias, German, Oswin, Thomas, 

Lambert, Michael, Barbara, Philip. 
LIGHT, Pillar of. SS. Cuthbert, Bede. 

^ SS. Joseph, Gabriel, Kenelm, Sebastian, Clare, Dominic, Our 


LIMBS CUT OFF. S. Adrian. 

LION. SS. Mark, Jerome, Adrian, Dorothy, Ignatius, Prisca. 

LOAF OR LOAVES. SS. Olave, Philip, Nicholas, Sitha or Zita, Cuthbert, 

Roch, Gertrude, Paul the Hermit. 
LUFE. S. Cecilia. 
MALLETS. S. Denis. 
MANACLES. S. Leonard. 
MASS. SS. Martin, Gregory. 
MEDAL ROUND NECK.- S. Genevieve. 

MILK, Pan of. S. Bridget of Kildare. MILKING. Ditto. 
MILLSTONE. SS. Vincent, Christina, Crispin and Crispinian, Victor 

of Marseilles, etc. 

MONEY. SS. Matthew, Philip, Martin. 
MONEY Box OR BAG, OR TABLE. S. Matthew. 
MONOGRAM, Sacred. Ignatius. 

NAILS. SS. Giles, Eloy, Quintin, King Louis, William of Norwich, etc. 
NAPKIN. SS. Stephen, Veronica. 

NECK. Pierced, S. Agnes. Wounded behind, S. Cecilia. 
OAK, Felling of, -S. Boniface. 
OAR.- SS. Jude, Julian Hospitaller, Aubert. 
OATS, Field of. S. Radegund. 
OIL. SS. Walburge, Remigius, Vitus. 
OINTMENT Box. SS. Mary Magdalene, Joseph of Arimathea, Cosmas 

and Damian, Joanna. 
ORGAN.-A. ^-agjjfc- 
OTTERS. S. Cuthbert. 
Ox. SS. Luke, Cornelius, Silvester, Leonard, Medard, Julitta, Frideswide, 

Polycarp, Lucy. 
PALM. SS. John Evangelist, Catherine ; often a generic symbol of 




PHYSICIANS. SS. Cosmas and Damian, Luke. 

PICKAXE. S. Leger. 

p IG . SS. Anthony, Blaise. 

PILE OF WOOD. SS. Polycarp, Agnes, Agatha. 

PILGRIM. SS. James the Greater, Roch, etc. 

PINCERS. SS. Apollonia, Dunstan, Agatha, Lucy. 

PITCHER. S. Bede. 


PLOUGH. SS. Richard, Kentigern. 

POTSHERDS, Bed of. S. Lucian. 

PURSES. SS. Nicholas, Edward the Confessor, etc. 


RACK. S. Vincent. 

RAIN, Shower of. S. Swithun. 

RAVEN OR CROW. SS. Benedict, Erasmus, Oswald, Vincent, Adrian, 

Paul the Hermit, etc. 
RING. SS. Edward, K.C., Barbara. 
ROCK, Chained to. SS. Martin, Gregory. 
RODS. SS. Benedict, Faith. 
ROPE. S. Beatrice, etc. 
ROSARY. SS. Sitha, Dominic, etc. 

ROSES. SS. Dorothy, Barbara, Elizabeth of Hungary, etc. 
SALMON AND RING. S. Kentigern. 
, SARUM MISSAL. S. Osmund. 
SAW. SS. Simon, James the Less, etc. 
SCALES. S. Michael, etc. 

SCALLOP SHELL ON HAT. S. James the Greater, S. Roch. 
STEP-CM. Thft kings Olave, Oswald, Edmund, Edward, C, Edward, M., 

Louis ; Queen Margaret of Scotland and others. 
SCOURGE.- SS. Ambrose, Boniface, Guthlac, Gervase and Protasius, 

Simon Stylites. 

SCYTHE. SS. Walstan and SidwelL 
SERPENT. SS. John Evangelist, Benedict, Guthlac, Francis, Patrick, 

Hilary, Magnus, Christina, etc. 
SHACKLES.S. Leonard. 
SHEARS. SS. Agatha, Cosmas and Damian. 
SHEEP. SS. Margaret, Genevieve, etc. 
SHELL, Scallop. S. James the Greater, S. Roch. 
SHELLS, Lying on. S. Felix. 
SHIP. SS. Jude, Ursula, etc. 

SHOEMAKERS. SS. Crispin and Crispinian, Theobald. 
SHRINES. SS. John of Beverley, Omer, Louis, etc. 
SICK PATIENT. SS. Luke, Cosmas and Damian. 
SIEVE. SS, Benedict, Hippolytus. m m . . . 

SKIN FLAYED OFF. SS. Bartholomew, Crispin and Crispinian, etc. 


SKULL. SS. Jerome, Mary Magdalene, Thomas of ir Canterbury, 

SQUARE, Carpenter's. SS. Matthew, Matthias, Thomas, Jude, Joseph. 
STABBED on horseback in the back or shoulder with a dagger. 

S. Edward, K.M. 
STAFF BUDDING. SS. Joseph of Arimathea, Etheldreda, Ninian, 

Christopher, Aldhelm. 

STAG, SS. Aidan, Julian Hospitaller, Kentigern. 
STAG WITH CRUCIFIX. SS. Eustace, Hubert. 
STAR on, or over head, breast, or in hand. SS. Dominic, Bruno, 

Thomas Aquinas, Hugh of Grenoble, etc. 
STIGMATA. SS. Emncis, j^i^nej^JS^a* . 
STONE OR STONES. Emblem of torture or martyrdom, SS. Pancras, 

Matthew, Timothy, Stephen, Alphege, Barnabas, Bavon. Employed 

in beating the breast in contrition, SS. Jerome, Barnabas. Loaves 

turned into stones, S. Olaf. 
SUNBEAM. S. Bridget of Kildare and others. 
SWAN. SS. Hugh of Grenoble, Cuthbert, Leger. 
TAPER. SS. Genevieve, Blaise, Bridget, Felix. 
TAU CROSS. SS. Anthony, Philip. 
TEETH DRAWN. S. Apollonia. 
THORN. Extracted by Joseph of Arimathea from lion's foot, SS. Mark, 

Jerome. Lying on thorns, SS. Benedict, Jerome, Dominic. 
TIARA. Any Pope. 
TONGS. S. Dunstan, etc. 
TONGUE CUT OFF. S. Leger, etc. 
TOOTH. S. Apollonia. 

TORCH. SS. Blaise, Medard, Aidan, Barbara, Dorothy. 
TOWER. SS. Barbara, Ambrose, etc. 
TRAMPLING. SS. Catherine of Alexandria, Pancras of Rome, Barbara, 

Theodore, Optatus, Cyprian. 
VANE. S. Leonard. 

VASE. SS. Mary Magdalene, Cosmas and Damian, etc. 
VEIL. SS. Veronica, Remigius, Agnes, etc. 
VERNICLE. S. Veronica. 
VIAL. SS. Walburge, Cosmas and Damian, etc, 
VIATICUM. S. Petronilla, etc. 
^QU^-^S. .Cecilia. 

WALLET. SS. James the Greater, Jerome, Roch. 
WASHING FEET OF POOR OR LEPERS. SS. Louis, Editha, Th^rn^s of 

WELL. S/Sebastian, Sidwell, Sitha, Cyr, etc. 

WHEEL. SS* Catherine, Quintin, etc. 

WILD BEASTS. SS. Blaise, Magnus, German, Radegund, Columba. 

WILD BOAR. SS. Anthony, Cyr, Blaise. 

WILD GEESE. S. Milburga and S. Martin. 



WINDLASS. S. Erasmus. 

WINDMILL. SS. James the Less, Victor of Marseilles. Above 

S. Christopher in Ludlow stained glass. 
WINE, Flagon of. S. Elizabeth of Hungary. 
WOLF. SS. Vedast, Blaise, Columba, Edmund, Kentigern, Radegund, 


WOOL COMB. S. Blaise. 
WOUNDS IN THE NECK. SS. Lucy, Cecilia. 
WRITING. S. John Divine and other Evangelists. 

Deviation of Axis of Quimper Cathedral. 



'M. L. 

S, Ursula and her Companions. 
Holy Trinity, Goodramgate, York. 



THE following is a list of the chief saints to whom English 
churches are dedicated ; it also includes those who are retained 
in the Prayer Book Calendar, and a few of those who appear 
frequently in the paintings of rood-screens, wall paintings, and 
the like. On the other hand, it excludes numerous saints who 
are commemorated abroad, but very seldom, if ever, in England ; 
it also excludes nearly the whole of the great crowd of Celtic 

In the second column the following abbreviations are 
employed : 

A. = Abbot or Abbess. E. Evangelist. 
Ap. = Apostle. H. = Hermit 

A r. = Archbish op. M. = Martyr. 

B. = Bishop. P. = Pope. 
C = Confessor. Q. = Queen. 
D. = Doctor of the Church or Deacon. V. = Virgin. 

In the third column the feast days in many cases are not 
taken from the Prayer Book Calendar, but from the Calendars 
of Sarum, York, Hereford, and others. 

The fourth column gives the date of the saint's death, in 
some cases only approximately; the fifth column gives the 
number of English churches in whose dedication the saint is 
commemorated ; the sixth the page of the present volume in which 
the saint is referred to, and the page on which an illustration 
will be found. 

S -So I 



- to O 






<} <j-<^ <! 








E :_ 

a | 
12 " 

en > V 





d"**-* 3 

c soS 


,q rt ** O 

S *ll 

^ .-gj} 








O O O 

n- n " 

^- O 

o to 

VO T^ 




ON . M 


"I" | 

S H 



PEj ' 


t: -a 

5-2 fl 
"S S *S & 
P g .3 .fr 



I isilliii !'fc"iif|iiB{fi 

SU B .g(2 3^5 ^ 1.1(2 





eg ON o^ 

M W ^ 

to to to 

O to Tj- 

to r- to 

* .s 


to ^ 

M ON f^js 

a; M N w o 

*l*t! *a-| 

* *"^ /^ P ^ S 

O K-jS * 



a 2 si 

. > 








OT *3" 

S ^ 













CO *O 

' ON S> co ^ 














<g o 

N ^ "* 

S? ^- o 

VO '^ 




-S e * 

S 8s 

1 s 















a s 











LO :- 

g vases o 
may hav 
d robes a 
d to a tre 
ther. Th 
dral, and 
d car 


" c 
ts of 

ending sick man. Holdi 
f ointment, or surgical in 
tus, or the rod of ^Es 
d and executed; and so 
or be crucified. With furr 
rking as shoemakers. Tied 
ir skins to be used as leath 
with millstones tied to their 
a statue in Durham cathed 
he is in episcopal costume 
ald. With ott or swans 


of S. Os 
of light. 



o *o 

O N 



M O 

00 . 





S H. 


Cornelius - 

Cosmas and 

Crispin and Cris- 

Cuthbert - 




a ' 

"o ' 




















u u S 8 
' w ffi 

















i If 


S ^ 





vg vo ^ *> 

M v? *S S 

C ^ W H 

** S co o 

o cssCoo 


" pa 

^ 1 


O'C a oi ->*,. 



* S -S o ^9 rt co ii 

11 f! 

g ta a .-3 

19? 8l 

<y * <y _e! O 



.53 x'* S-2 

_"' Is,, 

'o -w "5 . ST 

Hill I 

S 2 g) 

' s .a|^S'S 

l-gsll ffi | 

o <* w c S 

tf S 

? ci 




T-S-l^s'S &-JIIII ll^ s^.s liu^'-fl'-s - 

fs--!ifli:-i8ii^ S :iii^s s iss| 





x CO 



CO ^i 

a; "C 






1. < 



fl S gk 
fi x ? 

O O 





i | 














- *3 . 

O C rj 03 03 

a s s 1 -a 

O a; > -^ S 
C i j3 !> bO p, 


8 s 2 1 s S.-8 


O >> O O rl 

! 3 ii * 



d rt 








1/5 N O> O\ M W 






? ? 2 % * 

M W ' g. 





^0<*oo i-r. ? | " 


i . 





o " 






I I 





fl ' 

(U O 




























M .- 






th curly .hair, 
top of his he 
k ; tiara and 
g a fish. In gl 
nd asperge. 
minican dr 
, or hatchet 
ith turban 
er convers 





.. W "t ir> 

3 o bb 

"* VO 4> 3 

^ G< 

_5 - . i. 

** S to fl Q\ t? 

M <s a M 

&4! S s^-gffas.igfi 



O 10 M 


*- - 

W 4J 

*0 OT 

- H 




v) O ** 
to vo w 

00 - 




c 'A 

o I ! 


f g S 

fr SE S 

o o 4J 



0< ea M g 






Ill 1 1 

.2 rt * g 
*"O .. iT w ^ 

S .H l<j 
,- M IJ 


f -I 

.2 I 

H {J 

"8 w 

^ & 






o o S 

_ I^N > *r 


3 CO 





^g ><, 
C/3 CO CO 



o . 














*M &8 

R* ^S 

O O 



M 6 u 

^* flj M <D 

N -^ 

*s S ^ d t? M 
o ^ S r^ 


^ ^ 

^ i8i 

PQ M > 



1 a-21 ^:-| 1 
J* j a s i -I 

H C r rt >^ l5 


















n^ s 

R S S3 


S=3 a o 


S s2 



<L> c 

P^ S 

(J >H 

cn o 

o .* 


8 I^ 
!l rf 









bO "* 




CCS C/3 




"-S S 

in. Crucified with ropes. 









V (4-1 


S ^ 

<L) C! 


B i 

.1 'g -S ! 

ti C3 <y 


eo O 




G 5),S43 

.S g g 


fy ja 


S .-o 

J-< . 


ra g 


- s 


W o 

With windmill < 




3*8 g fr 




MS_, ti 
b2*^ c 

Crowned; erm 
ed while he was 
Abbot of Fonts 



. c-g 

M l 

Baptizing or pi 
Mass vestmen 

exham screen. 
A bearded won 

Child crucified 

I wounds. 
Archbishop's i 
th eight lozenges 
the north win 

S-^ S3 g 
43 ^ GJ X! 






. 5.SS 










H 2 







*2 - 

S '4 % 




> *o 






2 8 

oo g oo 







> s ^ 



S "g *S "S 




-2 a 

S3 a 








H -c 



O G T3 

*O O fci 

C/5 Ctf 

^ r-T *5 






D ^ 

^ -g^j S.jg C 

^ o g w * 

^ S O J3 cS 












o o 







N.JS. Other references will be found in the alphabetical list of saints ^ 
pages 308 to 332 

J[\ Aberystwyth, 250 
Abraham, 254, 275 
/Elfric, 114, 128, 161, 282 
Agatha, 20, III, 169 
Agnes, 22, 180, 114, 116, 169, 187 
Aidan, 27, 89, 104, 124 
Alban, 13, 119, 134, 297 
Aldhelm, 107 
Aldington, 257 
Alford, 195 

Alkelda, 79, 80, 127, 129 
Alkmund, 76, 127, 215 
Alleluia Victory, 68 
All Hallows, 60 
All Saints, 60, 191, 204, 208 
All Souls, 60 

Alphege, 127, 129, 194, 209 
Alphington, 197 
Ambrose, 24, 85, 265, 267, 84, 134, 

238, 264 
Amphibalus, 190 
Anderson, Sir Charles, 177 
Andrew, 40, 261, 148, 154, 186, 206 
Andrewes, 241 
Angelo, S., 38 
Angers, 66 

Anglo-Saxon Church, 80, 222 
&M&, frontispiece, 58, 59, 58, 170, 219 
Antholin, 70 
Anthony, 13, 85, 141, 153, HI, 157, 

195, 277 

Apollonia, 123, 123, 159 
Apostles, 261, 262 
Apulia, 38 
Arilda, 80 
Armel, 93, 146 
Arnold, 186. 

Ashby de la Launde, 208 
Ashby S. Leger, 124 

Ashton, 140, 141, 213. 267, 40, 66, 
75, 84, 123, 143, 153, 154, 159, 212 

Assumption, 32, 281, 31, 191 

Athanasius, 138, 238 

Attercliffe, 6 

Augustine of Canterbury, 6, 27, 41, 
101, 114, 192, 193, 209 

Augustine of Hippo, 15, 265, 267, i, 
10, 153, 256, 264 

Atitun, 122 

Auxerre, 94 

Ave Maria, 219 

Avranches, 39 

Bamburgh, 104 

Barbara, 7, 22, 47, 144, 149, 122, 148 
Barlow, 241 
Banning, 273 
Barningham, 291 
Barrow, 97 
Bartholomew, 63, 134, 135, 261, 135, 

136, 206 
Barton, 253 
Barton Turf, 195 
Basilissa, 189 
Basingstoke, 8 
Bean, 176 
Beaulieu, 189 
Beauvale, in 
Beckford, 66 
Becon, 240 

Bede, 10, 138, 185, 223, 224, 240 
Bees, 189 
Bega, 189 
Bell, 296 

Benedict of Cassino, 68, 174 
Benedict Biscop, 47 
Benedictines, 67, 107 




Bernard, 31 

Berno, 138 

Bethersden, 192 

Bethlehem, 73 

Beverley minster, 163, 39, 164, 275, 


Beverley S. Mary, 275 
Bingham, I, 238 
Birinus, 106, 138 
Bishopstrow, 107 
Bishop Wilton, 202 
Blaise, 20, 119, 120, 176 
Blythburgh, 63, 5, 136, 137 
Bodmin, 213 
Boniface, 127, 297 
Botolph, 67, 90, 207, 209 
Bourges, 269 
Boxgrove, 120 
Bradford, 120 
Bradninch, 268 
Brandon, 98 
Branwallader, 191 
Brent Tor, 36 

Bridget of Kildare, 97, 169, i80 
Bridget of Sweden, 98 
Bridlington, 190 
Briggittines, 98 
Bristol, 35, I2S 
Brompill, 201 
Broxbourne, 291 
Bruno, 138 
Brychan, Sons of, 83 
Bury S. Edmund, 129 
Byzantine calendar, 224 

QAEN, 54, 247 
Cambridge King's college, 70 j 
John's, 54; Trinity, 4; Peter- 
house, 191 

Candida, 114, 190 

Canterbury, 6, 129, 201, 249; S. 
Augustine's, 104; S. Pancras, 66, 
114; Four Crowned Martyrs, 66; 
King's School, 170 

Cantire, 122 

Canute, 129 

Carlisle, 245, 289 

Carloman, 100 

Carthage, 10 

Castissima, 187 

Castle Howard, 164 

Catherine of Alexandria, 22, 118, 163, 
164, 165, 119, 169, 210, 218, 219, 

Catherine of Siena, 206 

Cawston, 62, 197, 59 

Caxton, 162, 175 

Cecilia, 109, 161, 169 

Cedd, 239 

Celtic saints and dedications, 10, 25, 
27, Si, 83, 97, 104, 192, 193, 202, 

206, 212, 214, 2l6, 217, 222, 225, 

Ceolfrith, 67 

Chad, 12, 86, 106, 215, 296 

Challock, 176 

Charitana, 184 

Charles, K.M., 78, 153. 222 

Chartres, 254, 269, 288 

Chester cathedral, 6 

Cheveley, 6 

Chichele, 60 

Chick, 126 

Chosroes, 6 

Christchurch, 6, 36 

Christopher, 59, 166, 168, ii4 ^59, 

161, 167, 187, 210 
Chrysostom, 84, 138 
Clare, 18 

Clerkenwell S. John, 41 
Clement, 15, 140, 109, 134, 140, 153, 

154, 164 
Cleopas, 137 
Cluniacs, 60 
Colchester, 75 
Cole, King, 75 
Coleman, 193 
Cologne, 143 
Colossae, 38 

Columba, 33, 98, 99, 122 
Columbus, 5 
Combs, 161 
Compostella, 43 
Condicote, 66 
Constantine, E.,6, 38, 72, 73, 75 238, 


Constantine, K.M., 122 
Constantinople, 38 
Constantius, 75 

Coombe-in-Teignhead, 49, 118, 164 
Corentin, 15, 187 
Corfe, 10, 78 
Cornelius, 15, 187 
Cornwall, 212, 239 
Corpus Christi college, 6 
Coronation of Virgin, 261, 262 
Cosmas and Damian, 116, 117, nS, 

176, 189 

Cowfold, 113, 130, 170 
Cranmer, 224 
Crediton, 100 
Croce, S., 18 
Cross, Holy, 6 
Crowland, 12, 90 
Cruz, Santa, 8 
Cruz, Vera, 8 
Cumnor, 278 
Cuthbert, 87, 89, 91, 105, 126, 179, 




Cuthburga, 10, 79 

Cynethryth, 77 

Cyprian of Carthage, 10, 84, ill, 173, 

184, 185 
Cyriacus or Cyril, 122, 170, 143 

r\ALDERBY, 198 
L/ Dale abbey, 76 
David of Wales, 10, 12, 83, 177, 216 
Decollation of Baptist, 41 
Delamere, 13, 296 
De la Warre, 66 
Delehaye, 185 

Demo, 66, 70, in, 156, 187, 208 
Denis, 13, 156, 187 
Derby S. Alkmund, 215 
Derwent, 104 
Devonshire, 212 

Diocletian, 66, 114, 142, 161, 184, 238 
Dionis, 70 
Dioscuri, 118 
Doctors of Church, 264 
Dogfael, 216 
Dogs, City of, 154 
Dominic, 138 
Dorchester, 106, 249, 275 
Dorothy, 18, 140, 180, 142 
Dorringtcn, 100 
Dover, 2 
Dunstan, 26, 68, 71, 157, 171, 104, 

156, 170, 190, 209, 247, 294, 295, 


Durandus, 243, 248 
Durham, 6, 105, 126, 205 

Eanswith, 81, 80 
East Harling, 259 
Ebba, 179 

Edith, 70, 80, 202, 208, 215 
Edmund, K.M., 13, 76, 127, 158, 78, 

127, 128, 129, 161 
Edward III., 78, 152 
Edward, K.C., 77, 78, "7> *73> 86, 

174, 1 86 

Edward, K.M., 9, 1 1, 10, 78 
Edwardstow, 10 
Edwin, 76, 104, 124 
Egwin, 21 
Elene, S., 75 
Eligius, 87, 156 
Elizabeth, 46, 137 
Elizabeth of Hungary, 175 
Elstow, 75 _ 

Ely cathedral, 4, 33* * 2 8, 176, 177 
Emmerammus, 187 
Enoch, 106 
Enurchus, 222 

Erasmus, 15, 158, 159, 160 

Ercombert, 79 

Esperit, S., 8 

Ethelbert, 74, 76, 77> 101, 127 

Ethelburga, 124 

Etheldreda, 20, 79, 12, 169 

Eton, 70 

Eudocia, 36 

Euphrosyne, 187 

Eusebius, 184, 185, 220, 238 

Eustace, no, 109, 177, 186 

Evangelists, 262 

Evortius, 222 

Exaltatio cruris, 6 

Exeter cathedral, 32, 57, 33, 47, 58, 

67, 214 

Exeter, Lady, 5 
Exeter S. Mary Steps, 119 

FABIAN, ill, 189 
Faith, 18, 115, 117 
Falmouth, 134 
Fame, 90 

Father, God the, 251 
Felicitas, 183 
Felix, 104, 1 06 
Fenny Stratford, 70 
Fiery Dart, 98 
Finck, 193 
Firmin, 135 
Fontrevault, 288 
Fountains, 276 
Fowler, W., 164 
Fox, Bishop, 8 

Francis of Assisi, 180, 182, 179 
Fressingfield, 283-289, 278, 279 
Frideswide, 18, 79, 169, 201 
Friesland, 100 
Fulham, 70 
Fuller, 40 
Fulmer, 241 

* ABRIEL, 28, 29, 30, 219 

Galloway, 96 
Gal way, 214 
Gargano, 38, 40 
Caspar, 267 
Gateley, 197 
Genevieve, 220, 220 
George, 150, 151, 153, 114, *49> 219 
German, 67, 94, 119 
Germany, 100 

Gervase and Protasius, 109, 134, 189 
Giles, 24, 69, 176 
Gilles, S., 177 
Glasgow, 105, 106 



Glastonbury, 66, 67, 188 

Gloucester, 33 

Godfrey de Bouillon, 151 

Godwin, Earl, 214 

Gofdbrook, 128 

Grafton Regis, 13, 156 

Grantham, 100 

Great Gonerby, 135 

Great Plumstead, 67, 94, 174, 177 

Greenwich, 129 

Gregory, 102, 103, 60, 101, 102, 114, 


Gresford, 30, 95 
Greystoke, 155 
Gudnaphar, 57 
Guild ford, 133 
Guthlac, 26, 12, 90, 176, 207, 297 

HADRIAN, Mole of, 38 
liami&h, 43 
Ilardulph, 78 
Hartland, 214 
Hatherley Down, 6 
Hault Hucknall, 143 
Haverfordwest, 39 
Havering, 174 
Heavitree, 268 

Helena, 7, 71, 7, 75, 185, 204, 208, 209 
Helpringham, 254 
Henry VI., 195, 60, 70, 7$, W. J 95, 


Henry VII. , 196 

Henry VIIL, 4, 6, 31, 57, 190, 191 
Heraclius, 7 

Hereford cathedral, 76, 54, 77, 136 
Hereford calendar, 222, 224 
Hermes, 38, 109 
Hexham, 41, 65, 107 
Hibaldstow, 208 
Hilda, 79, So, 204 
Hippolytus, in, 187 
Hitchin, 191 
Holofius, 129 
Holy Ghost, 8 
Holy Innocents, 29 
Holy Rood, 8 
Holy well, 124 
Honorius, 106 
Hooker, I, 238 
Hurkstow, 252 
Hospitallers, 8, 41 
Host, Holy, 6 
Hoxne, 128 
Hubljard, 193 

Hubert, 15, 177, 178, 156, 177, 186 
Hugh, 178, 177 
Hybttld, 207 

T GNATIUS, 84, 109 
I India, 57 
Innocent III., 31 
Inventio crucis^ 6, 75 
lona, 98 

Irish round towers, 127 
Isaac, 254 
Ismael, 216 

JACOB, 43, 45 
James the Greater, 43, 44, 261 
43, 186, 187, 210 
James the Less, 60, 261 
Jarrow, 47 

Jerome, 265, 266, 220, 264, 297 
Jerusalem, 8, 75, 238, 252 
Jesus College, 6 
Joachim, 58 
loan of Arc, 194 
job, 109 

John Baptist, vi., 42, 41, 210, 297 
John Evangelist, 16, 42, 44, 50, 51, 
S3. 61, I35 261, 41, 49, '74, 193 

ohn of Beverley, 49, 80, 86, 174, 204 

ohn of Bridlington, 199, 49, 198 

ordan, 104 

oseph of Arimathea, 188 

udas, 279, 290 
Jude, 82, 261, 137, 189 

Julian Hospitaller, 119, 174 
ulitta, 122 

IT'ENELM, II, 78, 127, 170 
J\ Kenn, 156 
Kentigern, 105, 106, 107, 179 
Kentish royalties, 79 
Keymer, 176 
Kildare, 98 
Kilkenny, 214, 295 
Kirkburn, 254, 260 

T ADY Day, 31 

L, Lambert, 125, 127, 186, 293 

Lammas Day, 36 

Lancaster, Duke of, 198 

Laneast, 127 

Lastingham, 10, 239 

Laud, 242 

Laurens, S.,288 

Lawrence, 20, 112, in, 156,- 187, 275 

Lazarus, 49, 145, 186, 275 



Ledelghem, 172 

Leger, 123, 122, 124 

Leicester, 246 

Leonard, 15, 174 

Le Puy, 36 

Lewes, 113, 130 

Lichfield, 12 

Liege, 94 

Lincoln calendar, 225 

Lincoln minster, 51, 54, 131, 173, 

269, 272, 295 
Lincolnshire, 198, 207 
Lindisfarne, 89, 90, 126 
Little Bytham, 135 
Little Maplestead, 8, 41 
Little Plumstead, 134 
Llanrwst, 280, 279 

S. Bartholomew, 136 

S. Bride, 98 

Christ church, 182 

Christ Hospital, 182 

S. Helen, Bishopsgate, 75 1 

S. Katherine Creed, 242, 243 

S. Magnus, 129 

S. Olave, 129 

S. Paul, 47 

S. Peter ad vine-Ma, 36 
Loudon, 198 
Lubentius, 187 
Lucian, 114 

Lucy, 22, 120, 122, 161, 169 
Ludlow, 27, 71, 156, 166, 174 
Lullingstone, 160 

MAISTRE, Count de, 99 
Magnus, 127, 129 
Mallem, 108 
Malmesbury, 107 
Malvern, 77, 78 
Manchester cathedral, 66 
Manton, 208 

Marchia, Bishop, 194, 200 
Margaret of Antioch, 7, 121, 147, 122, 

148, 159, 169, 193, 207 
Maries, the two, 49, 143, 186 
Mark, 65 

Martha, 18, 46, 39, 133, 145 
Martin, 69, 93, 95, 162, 91, 92, 96, 

161, 174, 293, 296, 297 
Martina, 187 
Martinmas, 94 
Marton, 8 

Mary Cleopas, 52, 137 
Mary, Blessed Virgin, 27, 35, 39, 81, 95, 

Annunciation, 28, 29, 30 

Assumption, 32, 281, 31 

Nativity, 269, 31 


Mary Magdalene, 46, 47, 48, 118, 148, 

186, 193 
Mary Overie, 6 
Maternus, 187 

Matthew, 82, 155, 26 1, 154, 1 86 
Matthias, 62, 63, 261, 137 
Maurice, m, 155 
Maxentius, 164 
Mayence, 100 
Mazdai, 58 
Medard, 135 
Meinulf, 186 
Melchior, 267 
Mells, 212, 217 
Melrose, 89 
Mercury, 38 
Metz, 249 
Michael, 35, 37, 39, 213, 161, 205, 

212, 217 
Milan, 134 
Milburga, 79, 215 
Mildred, 209 
Milton Abbas, 191 
Minster, 12 
Modwenna, 25 
Monkwearmouth, 47 
Montmartre, in 
Motley, 76, 137, 143 
Moses, 193, 301 
Mungo, 1 06 
Myra, 173 

NECTAN, 214 
Nelson, 152 
Neot, 153, 179 
Nettlestead, 13, 2O, 54, 1 1 1 
Newtown, 134 

Nicholas, 26, 172, 94, 170, 210, 215 
Nicholas Cole, 190 
Nicodemus, gospel of, 252, 272, 274 
Nicomede, 325 
Nile, 152 
Ninian, 96, 96 
North Crawley, 135 
North Cray, 274 
North Marston, 196 
Northumberland, 205 
Norwich museum, 161 
Norwich cathedral, 39 
Norwich S. Lawrence, 18, 117 
Norwich S. Peter Mancroft, 7, 73, 

148, 166 

Nottinghamshire, 209 
Nunburnholme, 190 
Nutshalling, 100 

OFFA, 77> 127, 129, 134 
Olave, 13, 78, 127 
Oliver Cromwell, 152 



Orpheus, 252 
Osmund, 108 
Oswald, 26, 88, 76, 124, 126, 179, 204, 

208, 209, 282 
Oswin, 76 
Oswy, 33, 134 
Osyth, 80, 126, 169 
Ottery S. Mary, 240 
Oxford, 201 

AH Souls, 60 

Ashmolean, 161 

Cathedral, 6 

Christchurch, 20 

Holy well, 122 

Magdalen, 1 8 

S. Mary's, 178 

S. Peter in the East, 36 

DANCRAS of Rome, 113, 66, 114, 
1 134, 170 
Pancras of Taormina, 326 
Parker, 222 
Parma, 58 
Paschal, IOQ 
Patrick, 205, 223 
Paul, 45, 104, 189, 193 
Paulmus, 45, 104, 124, 193 
Pawl Hen, 45 
Peakirk, 192 
Peak Forest, 134 
Pega, 79, 192 
Pelagius, 94 
Pembrokeshire, 216 
Penda, 124, 215 
Pepin, 100 
Perpetua, 183 
Perseus, 151 
Peter, 33, 34, 81, 261, 188, 189, 206, 

Peterborough, 34, 33, 124, 202, 225, 


Petrock, 212 
Petromlla, 64, 187 
Philip, 61, 62, 63, 261 
Phrygia, 38, 187 
Plymouth, 134 
Pol de Leon, 45 
Polycarp, 84, 109 
Pontefract, 198 
Portugal, 58 
Pountney, 193 
Prato, 187 
Procopius, 184 
Provence, 49 
Pulham S. Mary, 128 
Pursglove, 296 

/""XUIMPER, 306 

RADBOD, 100 
Raherus, 136 
Ranworth rood-screen, 33, 37, 40, 45, 

52, 55, 56, <5o, 61, 79. 82, 104, 112, 

I47> *5 40, 47, 54, 5 8 > 59 Io6 > 

137, 148, 151* 154 
Raphael, 65 
Ravenna, 246 
Remachus, 186 
Remigius, 97 
Rheims, 97 
Richard L, 152 

Ripon, 12, 33, 106, 107, 195, 204 
Robert of Knaresborough, 204 
Roch, 175, 159, 176 
Rochester, 270, 6, 41, 65, 104 

S. Agnese, 9, 116 

S. Andrew's monastery, 41, 114, 148 

S. Clement, 9 

Constantia, mausoleum of, 254 

S. John Lateran, 247 

Latin gate, 51 

S, Lorenzo, 9 

S. Paul, extra muros, 247 

S. Peter, 249 

S. Petronilla, 9 

Quattuor Incoronati, 66 
Romsey, 249 
Rood, Holy, 6 
Rotherfield, 70 
Rumbald, 170 

Q AINT ALBANS, 13, 278, 296 

O Salisbury cathedral, 33, 269 

Samson, 179, 191 

Sandford, 281 

Sandringham, 15, 24, 160, 174, 177 

San Salvador, 6 

Santiago, 43 

Sapientia, 223 

Sarum calendar, 222, 224 

Sativola, 127 

Saviour, S., 6 

Scawby, 208 

Schorn, Sir John, 197, 196 

Scillitan martyrs, 185 

Scrope, 198 

Sebastian, 160, 114, 135, 161, 182 

Second Person in Trinity, 6 

Selby, 250 

Sepulchre, S., 8 

Serf, 107 

Sexburga, 12,79 

Shaftesbury, 10 

Shapwick, 169 

Sherehog, 193 



Shrewsbury Holy Cross, 8 

Shrewsbury S. Mary, 94, 125, 127 

Shropshire, 214 

Sibyls, 268 

Sidwell, 126, 127, 187 

Siena, 268 

Silas, 237 

Simon, 56, 261, 137, 189 

Simon de Montfort, 198 

Sinai, 119, 163, 166 

Sitha, 213, 217, 126, 129, 297 

Skelig Michel, 36 

Solomon's temple, 238 

Somerset, 211 

Son, God the, 6, 252 

South Brent, 253 

South Leigh, 35, 38, 40 

Southampton, 6, 119, 241 

Southwark, 6 

Southwell, 209 

Spalding, 66 

Spenser, 152 

Sport, Sir Thomas, 4 

Stanhope, 57 

Stanmore Magna, 242 

Steeple Ashton, 263 

Stephen, 13, 53, 55, 148, 296 

Stephen Harding, 138 

Stephen, King, 54, 70 

Stoke Pogis, 156 

Stonyhurst, 147 

S. Moritz, in 

S. Woolos, 282 

Stretford, 176 

Sudborough, 294 

Sulpicius Severus, 91 

Sutcombe, 279, 290 

Swithun, 1 08, 190 

Sylvester, 238, 293 

Symphorian, 109, 170 

T ANTONY pigs, 157, 179 
Tarascon, 145 
Tatiana, 187 
Teilo, TO, 12, 216 
Templars, 8 
Temple church, 8 
Temple, Solomon's, 238, 239 
Terrington S. Clement, 167 
Thaxted, 259 
Theodore, 238 
Theophilus, 142 
Thetford, 8 
Thomas, Apostle, 56, 57, 261, 133, 

148, 146, 186, 193, 218 
Thomas, Duke of Lancaster, 198 
Thomas of Canterbury, 130, 131, I3 2 * 

I33 129 

Thomas, S., Hospital, 57 

Thoroton, 75 

Thurlby, 135 

Tideswell, 3, 282 

Torbryan, 206 

Tours, 92 

Towyn, 293 

Trinidad, 5 

Trinity, Holy, 4, 210, 251 

Troutbeck, 6 

Trull, 265 

Tunbridge Wells, 134 

Tyre, 238 

T I GBOROUGH, 156, 268 
U Ulpha, 54 
Uncumber, 144, 143 
Union Jack, 41, 152 
Upwell, 294 
Uriel, 65 
Ursula, 141, 142, 306, 143 

Vedast, 330 
Venus, 94 
Verca, 70 
Veronica, 24, 331 
Victor of Marseilles, 206 
Vigor, 331 
Vikings, 127 
Vincent, 117, 119, 187 
Vitalian, 134 
Volto, Santo, 187 

WALTHAM Holy Cross, 8, 156 
Wappenbury, 8 

Wareham, 10 

Warkworth, 28 

Weedon, 179 

Wells cathedral, II, 29, 48, 74, 88, 
no, 10, 31, 49, 105, 109, 124, 131, 
170, 194, 200 

Welsh saints, 81 

Wenlock, 215 

Wensley, 31 

Werburga, 79, 179 

Westacre, 201 

West Wickham, 22, 164 

Westminster, 9, 39, 42, 43, 44, 46, 47, 
52, S3, 58, 7i> 78, 85 87, 93 S 
117, 121, 134, 144 *5* ^53 *55 *5*> 
ifo, 162, 172, 173, 175, 266, 10, 33, 
38,45,47,49,54,78,84, 114, 128, 
136, 147, 148, 151. 154, 156, 160, 
164, 173, 175, J 79 



Wilgefortis, 144, 143 

Whipstead, 54 

Whitby, 33, 80, 105 

Whitchurch, 114 

Whitehall, 133 

Whitherne, 96 

Whyte, 114 

Wilfred, icx> 

Wilfrid, 24, 106, 12, 67, 107, 204, 209 

Wilgefortis, 144, 143 

William, 49, 54 

William of York, 138, 139, 199, 138, 

204, 294, 296 
Willis, Browne, 70 
Wiltshire dedications, 210 
Wimborne, 10, 192 
Winchester cathedral, 4, 33, 20, 106, 

in, 117, 172, 190,278 
Winchester S. Cross, 8 
Windsor S. George, 10, 78, 195, 196, 


Winifred, 121, 124, 169 
Winterton, 252 
Withburga, 79 

Wokingham, 135 

Wolborough, no 

Worcester cathedral, 6, 96, 179, 267 

Wrondon, 154 

Wroot, 135 

Wulfram, 100 

Wulstan, 124 

Wyston, 78, 127 

YORK All Saints, frontispiece^ 50, 
54, 139, 167, 168 
York S. Crux, 8 
York Holy Trinity, 129 
York minster, 33, 75, 90, 96, 124, 138, 

140, 166, 195, 250, 260 
York S. Martin, 94 
York calendar, 222, 224 
Yorkshire dedications, 203 

fACHARY, 190, 193 
s Zug, 126 


ALB, 293 
Almond, mystic, 256 
Almuce, 297 
Alphabets, mystic, 241 
Alternative dedications, 14, 193 
Amice, 293 
Anchorites, 86 
Angels, 40 

Anglo-Saxon Church, 222 
Anglo-Saxon consecration of churches, 


Anglo-Saxon missioners, 105-107 
Anglo-Saxon royalties, 76-78 
Anglo-Saxon saints, 137 
Animals, stories about, 176-182 
Annunciation, 31 
Apostles, emblems of, 262 
Apparel, 293 

Apparitions of S. Michael, 38 
Archangels, 36 

Ark as emblem of Church, 269 
Ascetic life, 86 
Asperge, 297 
Assumption, 31 
Aureole, 282 
Austerities, 86 
Axis, deviation of, 247 

BARE feet, 256 
Bearded lady, 143 

Bells, dedications of, 167-169, 217-219 
Bible, little known, 86 
Biblical saints, 28-64, 19* 
Birthday saints, 70 
Building methods in Middle Ages, 249 

CALENDARS, 220-225 
Calendar of Church of Ireland, 

Calendar of Church of Scotland, 223 
Calendar of Eastern Church, 224 
Canonisation, popular, 198 
Canonisation, procedure of, 194 
Canons of credibility, 183 

Captives, 173 

Cassock, 297 

Celtic consecration of churches, 239 

Celtic dedications, 10, 25, 33, 39, 80, 

81, 83, 97-99, 192, 193, 204, 205, 

212, 216, 221, 222, 225 ; and see 

Celtic mission, 104 
Chancels, deviation of axis, 247 
Change of dedications, 190, 191 
Charity, praise of, 174 
Chasuble, 294 
Child saints, 170 
Christ in glory, 254 
Cluster dedications, 70 
Colours, symbolism of, 288 
Compound dedications, 12, 189 
Consecration of churches, procedure of, 

238 242 

Consolidation of dedications, 190 
Contemplative reHgion, 86 
Continental missioners, 100 
Continental saints, 65 
Conversion of England, 79, 101 
Cope, 297 

Coronation of Virgin, 261 
Credibility of legends, 183 
Crosier, 277, 297 
Cross, discovery of true, 6, 75 
Cross, forms of, 277 
Cross of bishop, abbot, archbishop, and 

pope, 276, 277, 296 
Cross-staff, 297 
Crown of thorns, 277 
Crucifix, 277 

Cruciform churches, symbolism of, 246 
Crusades, 151 

Day, dedication, 192 
Dedication, meaning of, I 
Alternative, 193 
Change of, 191 
Compound, 189 




Dedications (continued] 

Consolidation of, 190 

Intercessory, 12 

Lost, 191 

Memorial, 9 

Modern, 70 

Personal, 9 

Proprietary, 10 

Re-dedications, 12, 196 

Statistics of, 14-25 

Spurious, 193 

Dedications, method of study, 201-203 
Deviation of axis of chancels, 247 
Devil, 272 
Discipline, 297 

Diseased etymology, 64, in, I33 ^7 
Divines, 84 

Doctors of Church, 84, 264 - 
Doorways, 254 
Dove, 260, 297 
Dragon, 38, 146, 151, 272 
Dramatic stories, 146-157 

EARLY Christian emblems, 292 
Emblems keep saints in mind, 156 
Episcopal vestments, 295 
Eucharistic vestments, 293-295 
Evangelisers of England, 101-108 
Evangelisers of Scotland and North- 

umbria, 96-97, 107 

Evangelisers of Western Europe, 92-94 
Evangelistic symbols, 262 . 
Evangelists, dedications to, 84 

FATHERS of Church, 84 
Feasts and fairs, 192, 201 
Feet, bare, 256 

First Person of Trinity, emblems of, 251 
Fish, 259 
Forgeries, 187 
Forgiveness, gospel of, 99 
Forty, symbolism of, 286 
Fountain, 297 
Fylfot, 276, 277, 289 

ABRIEL bell, 219 
VJC Gallican Church, 222 
Generic emblems, 293 
Geographical selection of saints, 66 
Geometrical figures, 288 
Ghost, Holy, 260 
Girdle* 294 
Gloves of bishop, 295 
God the Father, dedications to, 2 
God the Son, dedications to, 2, 6, 8 
Golden Legend,, 162, 167 
Good Shepherd, 252 

HADES, 274 
Hand, divine, 251 
Harrowing of hell, 274 
Heaven, 274 
Hell, 274 
Hermits, 86 

Historical romances, 187 
Holy Ghost, 8 

IMAGES in churches, 210 
1 Intercessory dedications, 12 
Intercessory power of the saints, 2 
Ireland, evangelisers of, 97-99 
Irish saints, 97-99 

T EWISH Church symbolised, 270 


Lady chapels, 31 
Lady day, 31 
Lamb of God, 254 
Liber Regis, see Bibliography 
Lily, 261, 262, 297 
Literary treatment of legends, 148,. 

154, 161 
Lost dedications, 191 

MAGI, 95, 267 
Maniple, 294 

Martyrs, legends of, 109-134 
Mediation of saints, 2 
Memorial dedications, 9 
Michaelmas Day, 40 
Militant, Church, 38 
Miracles at Holy well, 124 
Mission, Roman, 101 
Missioners, 67, 89 
Missioners, English, 101-108 
Missioners on Continent, 100 
Mitre of bishop, 296 
Modern dedications, 70 
Monastic selection of saints, 66, 67 
Months and seasons, 289 
Monograms, 258 
Morse, 297 
Mortality, emblems of, 290 

NATIVITY, 31, 267 
Nimbus, 281 
Nine, symbolism of, 286 
Numbers, symbolism of, 282-287 



OLD and new style, 192 
Orante, 275 
Orientation of churches, 246 

PAINTINGS, suitability of saints 
for, 1 60 

Pallium of archbishop, 296 
Passion bench, 279 
Passion, instruments of, 277 
Pastoral staff, 296 
Patron saints, 70 
Pavements, Roman, 252 
Pelagianism, 68, 94 
Pelican, 257 
Pentalpha, 277, 288 
Personal dedications, 9 
Pictorial representations, 187 
Piety, 86 
Pilgrims, 45 
Plague at Rome, 38 
Prayer, 283 

Prayer-book calendar, 222, 223 
Precocious piety, 170 
Prisoners, 173 
Processional vestments, 296 
Proprietary dedications, 10, 72 

p E-DEDICATIONS, 12, 190, 191 
1\ Relics, importance of, 134 

Ring of bishop, 296 

Roman mission, 101-104 

Royal saints, 72-83 


O Saints without dedications, 137- 


Salutation, 31 
Sandals, ecclesiastical, 295 
Scandinavian saints, 129 
Scotland, evangelisers of, 96-97, 107 
Scottish missioners, 107 
Scourge, 297 

Scriptures, little known, 86 
Second Person of Trinity, emblems of, 


Selection of saint, reasons for, 65 
Seven, symbolism of, 282-286 
Ship as emblem of Church, 269 
Sibyls, 268 
Sick, care of, 174-176 
Skulls, 291, 297 
Soul, 275 

Spain, 43 

Specific emblems, 293 

Spirit, Holy, 260 

Spurious dedications, 193 

Staff, pastoral, 296 

Statistics of dedications, 14-25 

Stigmata of S. Francis, 182 

Stockings of bishop, 295 

Stole, 294 

Superstitious dedications, 191 

Surplice, 297 

Swastika, 289 

Sword, execution by, 164, 297 

Symbolism, 243-291 

Symbolism of church fabric, 244-246 

TAU cross, 277 
Taxafio of Pope Nicholas, see 

Temptations of S, Anthony, 157 
Theologians, 84 
Third Person of Trinity, 260 
Torture, 164 
Trinity, emblems of 251 
Trinity, Holy, 4 
Trinity House, 4 
Trinity Sunday, 4 
Tunicle, 295 

f T NCANONISED saints, 194-200 
LJ Unknown saints, 192 

J/'ALOR EcdesiasticuS) see Biblio- 

Vesica piscis, 256 
Vestments, 293, 297 
Vestments, choir, 296 
Vestments, cost of, 295 
Vestments, processional, 296 
Vine, 253 

Virginity, praise of, 169 
Visitation, 31 

\V/EIGHING souls, 38 
W Wells, patron of, 58 
Wills, 201 
Women in Anglo-Saxon Church, 79 

' GDI AC, 290 

Printed ai 'THE DARIKN PRESS, Edinburgh* 

Church Art in England 

A Series of Books edited by 

FRANCIS BOND, M.A., F.G.S., Hon. A.R.I.B.A. 

Now Ready PAGE 


BOND - - - - - - - 2, 3 



I. Misericords - - - - - - 6, 7 

II. Stalls and Tabernacle Work, Bishops' Thrones, and 

Chancel Chairs - - - - - - S, 9 




: FRANCIS BOND - - - - - - 74,^5 



Dr Cox - - - ... . 16 





HOWARD - - - - - - - l6 

Now Ready, uniform with ike above 






Demy 8vo, containing 204 pages, with 152 Illustrations reproduced 

from Photographs and Drawings. Strongly bound in cloth. Price 

6s. net ($2.40). 


New York Nation. f *It is not easy to praise too highly the simple and effective 
presentation of the subject and the interest of the book to all persons who care for 
ecclesiology or for decorative art. " 

Z>aily Graphic. "Mr Bond has produced a work on our ecclesiastical screens 
and galleries which, 'like his larger work on the 'Gothic Architecture of England,' is 

Screen in Holbeton Church 

in the first degree masterly. His -knowledge of his subject, exact and coraprenensive, 
is compressed into a minimum amount of spaee^ and illustrated by a series of photo- 
graphs and measured drawings which render the work of permanent value;," 

Bulletin M<mumetital*-'' i Apres avoir analys^, aussi exaetemtent que possible,' 
rinteressant e"tude de M. Bond, nous devons ie fe"lieiter de nous avoir donne* ce 

complement si ptile a son grand ouvrage.'' . 

. ... .. . . . ,.., ... . . ., . 



Demy 8vo, containing 364 pages, with 426 Illustrations reproduced 

from Photographs and Measured Drawings. Strongly bound in 

cloth. Price I2S. net ($4.80). 


Chzirch Quarterly Review. "It is most delightful, not only to indulge in a 
serious perusal of this volume, but to turn over its pages again and again, always sure 
to find within half a minute some beautiful illustration or some illuminating remark." 


Wood Carvings in English Churches 

I. Misericords 

Demy 8vo, coataimng 2 S 7 PW, with 241 Illustrations "produced 

from Photographs and Measured Drawings. Strongly bound in 

cloth. Price 7s. <5d. net (*3-)- 


J\ r ew York Herald. " One of the quaintest, most fascinating, and at the same 
time most learned volumes that a reader would happen upon in a lifetime." 

Antiqtiary. "An authoritative, and at the same time delightful and instructive 

Chttrch Tt'mes.~"A.n indispensable guide to the subject. The illustrations are 
worthy of all praise." 

Yorkshire Post. "Another of the valuable series of monographs on Church Art 
in England, and the most entertaining of all." 

- : '^f : rj^^ 
Misericord at Worcester 

Misericord at Beverley Minster 

Liverpool Courier.' 1 '' Another of the admirably written and illustrated art hand- 
books for which the author is famous." 

Birmingham Post. "This well illustrated volume is not only a valuable technical 
monograph, but also an important contribution to the history of social life and thought 
in the Middle Ages. Mr Bond's treatment of the subject is exceptionally charming 
and successful." 

Outlook* " Many there must be to whom Mr- Bond's new book will be welcome. 
Into all the details of" this varied and most puzzling subject he goes with thoroughness 
and a pleasant humour. The bibliography and indices, as ,in all the volumes in-this 
series, are admirable." 

' - ' ' ' ' ' - 


Wood Carvings in English Churches 

II. Stalls and Tabernacle Work, Bishops' 
Thrones, and Chancel Chairs 

Demy 8vo, containing 154 pages, with 124 Illustrations reproduced 

from Photographs and Measured Drawings. Strongly bound in 

cloth. Price 6s. net ($2.40). 



La Ckronique des Arts et de la, Curfositt. " TJne illustration copieuse etablie avec 
des soins tout docutnentaires ; des index ; une table par ordre chronologique, une 

S . . ' . .'' 


autre pa.r^ noms des lieux, viennent faciliter les recherches et permettre au lecteur de 
tirer benefice des vastes resources d'une erudition inforraee et sure." 

Stalls at Manchester 

The Cabinet Maker. "Every lover of woodwork should possess this series, 
which contains beautiful illustrations and most interesting descriptions of the noble 
heritage of magnificent work handed down to us by the mediaeval Church." 



Demy 8vo, containing 348 pages, with 270 Illustrations reproduced 

from Photographs and Measured Drawing's. Strongly bound in 

cloth. Price IDS. net ($4.00). 

Fan Vault of Henry Vll.'s Chapel in Westminster Abbey 


93 pages of text, abridged from the larger work on ""Westminster Abbey." 

Fc'ap 8vo, -with 15 Plans and Drawings and 33 Photographic Illustrations. 

Price is. net (40 c.). 

Chapter House at Westminster 


Church Bells of England 

Demy 8vo, containing 420 pages, with 170 Illustrations 

reproduced from Photographs and Drawings. Strongly 

bound in cloth. Price 73. 6d, net ($3.00). 

Times. "It is by far the most complete work of its kind in existence and the 
most accurate ... a treatise as readable as it is erudite." 

Uniform with the preceding- Volumes of the English Church Art Series 

Military Architecture in England 
During the Middle Ages 

By A. Hamilton Thomson, M.A., F.S.A. 

Demy 8vo, containing 406 pages, with 200 Illustrations reproduced 

from Photographs, Drawings, and Plans. Strongly bound in cloth. 

Price 73. 6d. net ($3.00). 

Bodiam ; North Front and Gatehouse 

Church Times. * Not only those who are specially interested in military archi- 
tecture, but also everyone who desires, on visiting an ancient castle, to view it with 
intelligent appreciation, must needs add this work to his library." 

Guardian. " This volume at once steps into the position of a classic ; it will be 
long before it is superseded." 

English Historical Review. " This monograph, is compressed into about four 
hundred pages, and copiously illustrated, yet it contains a wealth of detail that could 
easily have been expanded into a much longer work. ... Its author is not writing a 
guide to castles, but a history of military architecture ; yet the work might usefully be 
taken as a guide to many of the castles described in it." 

Country Life. "The book could scarcely be bettered as a concise survey of a 
difficult and complex subject." ' 

Journal des Savants. '" Le livre de M. Thompson sera , . le bienvenu. II 
le sera d'autant plus qu'il donnetin aper9u tres compiet des transformations de Tarchi- 
tecture militaire outre-Manche depuis les temps les plus anciens. ... Ce n'est pas 
seulement au point de vue anglais, c'est egalement a notre point de.vue fra^ais que 
ce livre offre un reel inte*ret," 

13 ' ' . 

Two Volumes, Demy Quarto j 1000 Pages? 1400 Illustrations 
Price Two Guineas net ($16.75). 

An Introduction to 
English Church Architecture 

From the Eleventh to the Sixteenth Century 


Athenaum. * These volumes form a worthy sequel to the important work on 
* Gothic Architecture in England,' by the same author, published in 1905. They 
represent a vast amount of orderly labour, and show an. astonishingly wide grasp 
of a great subject.' It is a big undertaking; 1000 quarto pages, with 1400 illus- 
trations. ^ One of the pleasant features of the work is the sparing use of exceptional 
or technical terms, the exact meaning of which is grasped as a rule only by a 
professed architect. For the use of the unlearned, the first volume opens with a 
tersely-written glossary of terms, and this is followed by a most useful explanatory 
list of French words and phrases of an architectural character. But for the most 
part there is a breezy freshness about Mr Bond's phrases which at once rivets the 

Westminster Gaset/e.~"\\ r e know Mr Bond as a careful student, of sound 
scholarship, but if we had no other evidence, this 'Introduction 3 of his would mark 

only how a-' church was built, but" why it was built, who built it, who served in it, 
who worshipped in it, and what manner of worship was theirs Ancient or Modern.' 
Already we are beginning to regard' such an attitude as perfectly natural, forgetting 
that the text-books of the last century took no more account of the human impulse 
than a treatise on trigonometry takes of the private life of Euclid. '. . /The book 
is magnificently illustrated." 

Yorkshire CWje-WA-. "Mr Bond shows, step by step, how -the church varied 
from age to age, structure following need, so that an ancient parish church as we 
see it now is not^a mere bit of ingenious or clumsy designing, plain or beautiful by 
caprice, but a living organism reflecting the lives, the faith, aid indeed the material 
fortunes of the people who built and used it It is in the realisation of this soul of a. 
building more than in anything else that the difference lies between the old guide- 
book antiquananism and the new archaeology which Mr Bond represents. ... If 
eaSy 1Udd t0 read ' nC might com P are * with twin's ' Origin, 

icH"^? u l alled record of English ecclesiastical architecture. It 
from end toJd.^ " ^ P ** f th W rk ' - Mr B nd has ex P lored hi * subject 


Western Mail. " Splendidly hound and well printed, with a glossary of terms 
which will prove most useful to the lay reader, it is a work of the greatest value to 
all who are in any way interested in the construction, details, and uses of bur ancient 
and beautiful churches. " 

Antiquary. "The student or the general reader who wishes to have an 
intelligent grasp of principles and of their illustration and exemplification in the 

Vault of Choir of Gloucester Cathedral 

details of construction has here provided for him an ideal book. Mr Bond's pages 
are likely, however, to fascinate the expert as well as the beginner. ... For this 
valuable book the author will receive the grateful thanks of students, not only those 
of the present time but those of many a day to come. ... Every chapter and every 
section is lavishly illustrated, not at random, but by a carefully chosen set of examples 
closely related to the text; the wealth of illustration is so great that a foil half of 
the thousand pages of the two volumes is occupied by pictures." 

'.. . ' ' . ' ' : - 15 ' -. ' . ' ' ' '- 

Uniform with the above Vohtmcs of the English Church Art Series 



Author ( : l " Churches' of Derbyshire," "How to Write the History of a Parish,^' 
"English Church Furniture,' 5 "Churchwardens' Accounts," "Parish Registers," 
" Rmal Forests of England," " Sanctuaries," etc. 


By Rev. J. T. EVANS, M.A. 

Editor of "Church Bells of Gloucestershire, Cardiganshire, Pembroke," etc. 



F.S.A., F.R.LB.A. 

Author*/ auMiivitf Wafers in the "Surrey and Sussex Archaeological Collections," 
and in ttu ' * Archaeological Journal. " 


The flltar, Reredos, Communion Table, Sltar 
Rails, Piscina,. Sedilia,, Easter Sepulchre, etc. 


Author of "English Church Architecture,'' etc. 



Aut'&vr ty'/w/Vrr on " Fan Vaulting," *' English Chantry Chapels," 
" Devon Churches," etc.